Under the Clean Air Act, particulate matter (PM) is one of the major air
pollutants for which National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are
to be established on the basis of the scientific evidence on risks to human
health. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), other federal and
state government agencies, and nongovernment organizations are conducting
a major multiyear research effort to improve scientific understanding of
airborne PM and its effects on human health.
Airborne suspended particulate matter (PM) can be either primary or secondary in nature. Primary
particles are emitted directly into the atmosphere either by natural or anthropogenic processes, whereas
secondary particles have a predominantly man made origin and are formed in the atmosphere from the
oxidation and subsequent reactions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and VOCs.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học quốc tế đề tài : Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach
Although data quantifying particulate emissions from construction and demolition work is scarce, some
research carried out in USA gives an estimation for TSP of 2.5 tonnes/hectare/month in zones where large
construction work is in progress. The quantity of particles emitted in each city from this source will
depend on the type of construction in progress. These particles are mainly present in size fractions greater
than 10µm. However, some fraction of the total amount is likely to be present as smaller particles. Also,
some of this dust will be resuspended either by traffic or wind.
Food and water are necessary to keep the human body functioning. People
must have a balanced diet that includes a complex range of nutrients to provide
energy, promote growth, maintain health and resist disease or illness, and
It is also known that food and water can carry, or be sources of, harmful
microorganisms, chemical compounds and particulate matter.
Diesel engines, also known as CI engines, possess a wide field of applications as energy converters because of their higher efficiency. However, diesel engines are a major source of NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Because of its importance, five chapters in this book have been devoted to the formulation and control of these pollutants. The world is currently experiencing an oil crisis. Gaseous fuels like natural gas, pure hydrogen gas, biomass-based and coke-based syngas can be considered as alternative fuels for diesel engines.
Rai & Tripathi (2009a) added that most metals in aquatic environment associated with
particulate matter, then settled and accumulated in the bed sediments. The accumulation of
contaminant in the bed sediments and the remobilization of contaminant are the most
important mechanisms of contaminant in an aquatic ecosystem regulation. Furthermore,
under certain circumstances such as deficit in dissolved oxygen or decreased in pH, the bed
sediments can be another source of secondary water pollution when the heavy metals from
bed sediments are released....
As early as the beginning of the 20th century Rudolf Diesel proposed vegetable oil as
fuel for his engine.1 A short time later, before and during World War Two, vegetable
oil was examined in “up-to-date” diesel engines. In 1940 first trials with vegetable oil
methyl and ethyl esters were carried out in France and, at the same time, scientists in
Belgium were using palm oil ethyl ester as a fuel for buses.2 In 1973, the oil crisis
refocused attention on and interest for local energy sources.
Hajo Zeeb reported having received remuneration from employment and con-
sultancy for a commercial entity or other organization with an interest related
to the subject of air pollution. He also reported having received research support
from a commercial entity or other organization with an interest related to the
subject of the meeting. He confirmed having held an office or other position,
paid or unpaid, where he may have been expected to represent interests or de-
fend a position related to the subject air pollution.
Indoor exposure to air pollutants causes very significant damage to health glo-
bally – especially in developing countries. The chemicals reviewed in this volume
are common indoor air pollutants in all regions of the world. Despite this, public
health awareness on indoor air pollution has lagged behind that on outdoor air
pollution. The current series of indoor air quality guidelines, focuses specifically
on this problem.
Urban ecology in Berlin has been developing over the past 350 years, from garden
floras and wild floras of castles and ruins to the Graduate Research Training Group
780 “Perspectives in Urban Ecology”. This program has brought together universities
and scientific institutes from all over Berlin.
Since the beginning, urban ecology in Berlin has included approaches from
biology and geography, leading to the current interdisciplinary work documented
in this summarizing publication.
The system of three-dimensional hydrodynamic-environmental models could simulate full advection and dispersion processes of the dissolved and particulate matter as suspended sediment and all oil phases in the realistic marine conditions. The hydrodynamic model provides temperature, salinity and current structure and water level. These variables will be used in the environmental model simulating the advection and diffusion processes for suspended matter concentration, bottom sediment thickness and all oil spill phases in the water and bottom sediment.
Kanchha’s father immediately found a job in a brick kiln factory not very far from the
city. These kilns produce highly concentrated amounts of fine particulate matter,
which interact with other industrial and vehicle fumes over Kathmandu. Brick
kilns use coal as their main fuel source, and this contributes to the air pollution in
Kathmandu by pumping considerable quantities of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and other
toxic substances into the atmosphere. After a few months, Kanchha’s father started
Air pollution is a leading environmental threat
to the health of urban populations overall and
specifically to New York City residents. Clean
air laws and regulations have improved the air
quality in New York and most other large cities, but
several pollutants in the city’s air are at levels that
This report provides estimates of the toll of air
pollution on the health of New Yorkers. It focuses
on 2 common air pollutants—fine particulate
matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3).
Airborne suspended particulate matter can be of primary origin, i.e. emitted directly into the atmosphere
or of secondary origin, i.e. formed in the atmosphere from gaseous species by either homogeneous or
heterogeneous chemical reactions. Due to these different emission sources, particles have different
chemical composition and size distributions. Depending on their size, particles have a different potential
to be transported over either long or short distances .
Primary particles can be produced from either natural or anthropogenic sources.
Paso del Norte’s growth has had serious environmental consequences, particularly for air
quality, which is the worst on the U.S.–Mexico border. Ciudad Juárez exceeds national ambient
air quality standards (official norms) for ozone, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter less
than 10 microns in diameter (PM10), and El Paso exceeds national ambient air quality standards
for ozone, PM10, and carbon monoxide. An overwhelming body of evidence links such air
pollution to respiratory and cardiovascular disease, and to premature mortality (U.S. EPA 1999).
The Government of Canada’s Interim Plan 2001 on Particulate Matter and Ozone includes a commitment to develop an action plan to reduce VOC from products. The $120.2 million package for clean air initiatives announced in the budget of February 2001 included resources for development and implementation of this plan, with additional resources for work on VOC-containing products included as part of the $40 million provided in the budget of February 2003.
The health impacts of a range of air pollutants are evaluated in this paper. However, to
avoid double counting, it follows Kunzli et al. (1999) in using PM10 (particulate matter
with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less) as the single indicator (the
index pollutant) of the health impacts of common ambient air pollutants, and including
non-overlapping health endpoints2
only when calculating the total health impact of air
The air pollution accumulating in the interior
of automobiles consists almost exclusively of gaso-
line and diesel exhaust. This toxic soup of gases,
aerosols, and microscopic particles includes ben-
zene (a known carcinogen), carbon monoxide
(which interferes with the bloods ability to trans-
port oxygen), particulate matter (which studies
have associated with increased death rates), and a
host of other hazardous chemicals.
The results are consistent. All of the pollut-
ants common to auto exhaust also appear in the air
within automobiles. For all except carbon mon-
oxide and the largest particulate matter, concen-
trations are typically higher inside cars in heavy
traffic than other placesthe roadside, nearby fixed
measurement sites, and inside transit buses, trains,
and subwayswhere we might also expect the
presence of auto pollutants.
The purpose of this report is to educate the
public and policymakers. There are actions that
individuals can ...