Cảnh quan nông nghiệp của Canada bao gồm một số 4.804.496 ha chế ngự hoặc
hạt cỏ và 15.391.072 ha đất tự nhiên pasture.1 Một quan trọng
phần của thức ăn gia súc này được sử dụng bởi ngành công nghiệp thịt bò của Canada như là một nguồn
thức ăn cho bò, bò, và chứng khoán đang phát triển / trẻ. Vi sinh vật phân hủy của thức ăn gia súc
và kết quả trong thức ăn chăn nuôi khác trong dạ cỏ, còn được gọi là quá trình lên men đường ruột,
sản xuất khí mê-tan....
The Current State and Trends assessment presents the findings of
the Condition and Trends Working Group of the Millennium
Ecosystem Assessment. This volume documents the current condition
and recent trends of the world’s ecosystems, the services
they provide, and associated human well-being around the year
2000. Its primary goal is to provide decision-makers, ecosystem
managers, and other potential users with objective information
and analyses of historical trends and dynamics of the interaction
between ecosystem change and human well-being.
The focus of the MA is on ecosystem services (the benefits people
obtain from ecosystems), how changes in ecosystem services have
affected human well-being in the past, and what role these
changes could play in the present as well as in the future. The
MA is an assessment of responses that are available to improve
ecosystem management and can thereby contribute to the various
constituents of human well-being. The specific issues addressed
have been defined through consultation with the MA users.
The increased attention given to equine nutritional issues during the last 6–7 years
by research groups around the world, has prompted me to revise the 2nd edition of
this book. The preparation of this edition entailed the careful reading of the previous
edition and with it the embarrassing discovery of a few errors, including one or
two in equations, which I have now corrected.
It has been necessary to revise all chapters and other sections, some to a greater
extent than others.
If camels and other stock can be based far away from a water source, the total area
available for grazing is greatly increased, the stocking rate can be lowered and the
dangers of environmental degradation are reduced. In simple terms, a doubling of the
interval between successive visits to water results in a four-fold increase in the area
available for pasture, with a corresponding reduction in grazing pressure. More
especially, the time period between successive waterings has an important bearing on the
carrying capacity and the degradation risk of a given area.
A farm is like a machine, fuelled by various resources, such as pasture, manpower, soil, water, equipment, crop plants and animals. As the resources become depleted or are used improperly, the profitability of the ‘machine’
8 Managing plants – Crops and pastures
Whether you produce animals or harvest plants, the basis of any farm is still its plants. For a farm to remain sustainable, certain minimum productivity levels must be maintained, using preferred plant species on an ongoing basis.
FEED STUFFS SECTION LI. GRASSES Under usual conditions no farmer expects to grow live stock successfully and economically without setting apart a large part of his land for the growth of mowing and pasture crops. Therefore to the grower of stock the management of grass crops is all-important.
When pasture is limited, grain and concentrates are easy fillers but can be expensive and its
use must be managed in regards to animal health. The majority of dairy farms in Australia
currently process grain by using the method of „dry-rolling‟. This is a process where grain
with 10-12% moisture content is shattered and then fed to cows. The „shattering‟ of the grain
increases its surface area which speeds up the rate of digestion in the rumen. In many other
parts of the world such as the United Kingdom, grain is also „dry-rolled‟ but with much
Ian and Jane Campbell of Barambah Organics near Murgon in Queensland produce,
process and market certified organic milk. Their movement into organic production
was born from a long family interest in sustainable agriculture and the need to create
a point of difference for their products.
“Customers are often surprised by the unique taste of our milk. It comes from
a balanced and healthy diet for the cows on our chemical-free broadacre pastures,”
Soil health and weed control are important considerations and are carefully managed
with compost manures and lime.
It is acknowledged that good pasture growth can be attributed to good management, but there
are also are number of factors to be taken into consideration that are beyond the control of the
farmer. These main factors include rainfall and temperature. Ensuring that the entire dietary
requirements of the cow are met is paramount to optimising milk production and hence,
Successful dairy cow management requires matching the quality and supply of feed with the
cow‟s nutritional requirements as efficiently and profitably as possible. Therefore, it is vital
that dairy farmers become increasingly proactive in minimising the uncertainties in pasture
growth and availability and become more focused on producing forages that can be preserved
and utilised when pasture is not readily available.
Organic milk producers usually begin as operators of conventional dairies that go through what
can be a challenging and costly transition process. Many changes in such areas as animal
husbandry, land and crop management, sourcing new and different inputs, and initiation of the
certification process, among others, are required during transition. For example, the pasture and
cropland providing feed for organic dairies must be managed organically for a minimum of 36
months before it can be certified.
Under usual conditions no farmer expects to grow live stock successfully and economically without setting apart a large part of his land for the growth of mowing and pasture crops. Therefore to the grower of stock the management of grass crops is all-important. In planting either for a meadow or for a pasture, the farmer should mix different varieties of grass seeds. Nature mixes them when she plants, and Nature is always a trustworthy teacher. In planting for a pasture the aim should be to sow such seeds as will give green grass from early spring to latest fall....