Pathogenic microorganisms

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  • The Immune Response Innate Immunity As they have co-evolved with microbes, higher organisms have developed mechanisms for recognizing and responding to microorganisms. Many of these mechanisms, referred to together as innate immunity, are evolutionarily ancient, having been conserved from insects to humans. In general, innate immune mechanisms exploit molecular patterns found specifically in pathogenic microorganisms. These "pathogen signatures" are recognized by host molecules that either directly interfere with the pathogen or initiate a response that does so.

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  • The development and rapid implementation of molecular genotyping methods have revolutionized the possibility for differentiation and classification of microorganisms at the subspecies level. Investigation of the species diversity is required to determine molecular relatedness of isolates for epidemiological studies. Methods for molecular epidemiology of microorganisms must be highly reproducible and provide effective discrimination of epidemiologically unrelated strains.

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  • The aim of this study was the development of a sensitive and specific substrate for protease A (PrtA), a serralysin-like metzincin from the entomo-pathogenic microorganism,Photorhabdus. First, cleavage of three biological peptides, the A and B chains of insulin andb-lipotropin, and of 15 synthetic peptides, was investigated.

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  • “This book is both up-to-date and “This book covers aiswide range of very informative for traditional subjects, and it refreshing to and new generations of plant virologists in both industrialized and developing nations of the world. Moreover, some chapters present very interesting concepts regarding the use of molecular techniques to gain new insight into long-standing pathological issues, such as virus evolution, host adaptation, and epidemiology.

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  • In general, the best beers at a competition should be assigned scores in the 40+ range, with real evaluations of the beer identifying some characteristics of the beer that make it non-perfect. A beer receiving a perfect score of 50 must indeed be perfect; it must have absolutely no flaws, exemplify the style as well as or better than the best commercial examples, be perfectly brewery-fresh, and be well- handled and presented. These conditions might not all be under the brewer’s control, so achieving a perfect beer at the point of presentation to judges is extremely rare. ...

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  • According to the most recent building census of 2000, there was no overall shortage of housing in Turkey, given that there was a total of 16.2 million housing units and 15.1 million households. 22 The regional differences in the ratio of housing units available to house- holds are stunning. In Istanbul 33% more housing units than house- holds were counted, in Izmir the excess was 24% and in Ankara 10%, whereas in some of the northern provinces some 30% to 40% more households than dwelling units are reported.

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  • In low- and middle-income countries, complications from pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of death among girls aged 15 to 19. And in 2008, there were an estimated three million unsafe abortions among girls in this age group. The adverse effects of adolescent childbearing also extend to the health of their infants. Perinatal deaths are 50% higher among babies born to mothers under 20 years of age than among those born to mothers aged 20 to 29. The newborns of adolescent mothers are also more likely to have low birth weight, with the risk of long-term effects....

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  • During this tutoring session I somehow felt like that teacher who was wondering whether he was being fair to his students and fair to himself since he was only ‘listening’. In effect, all I did this time was to ask Christine what the assignment was about, what she liked about her pieces of writing, what she was not too pleased with, and how she thought she could make some parts ‘better’. That’s right, it all developed smoothly, and Christine simply (almost naturally) answered my questions and automatically did the necessary changes as we went along.

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  • Patients affected by bleeding disorders present a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms that vary from a mild or moderate bleeding tendency to significant episodes. Women with inherited bleeding disorders are particularly disadvantaged since, in addition to suffering from general bleeding symptoms, they are also at risk of bleeding complications from regular haemostatic challenges during menstruation, pregnancy and childbirth.

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  • In too many companies, Sales and Marketing feud like Capulets and Montagues. Salespeople accuse marketers of being out of touch with what customers really want or setting prices too high. Marketers insist that salespeople focus too myopically on individual customers and short-term sales at the expense of longer-term profits. Result? Poor coordination between the two teams—which only raises market-entry costs, lengthens sales cycles, and increases cost of sales.

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  • If the process for selling goods on World of Good by eBay seems daunting to you, be aware that the company has anticipated this and has developed a program to help Sellers and Producer Groups who don’t have the time, experience, Internet connection, or otherwise lack capacity to complete the process outlined above. This initiative is called the Marketplace Access Program (MAP) and puts sellers in contact with what World of Good by eBay calls MAP Agents. Map Agents are experienced eBay sellers who help qualified WorldofGood.

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  • How real are the women characters in Hindi films? This is something to debate about because values, ideals, principles; morals have dominated the frame-work in which these films are placed. Thus, women rather than being depicted as normal human beings are elevated to a higher position of being ideal who can commit no wrong. Their grievances, desires, ambitions, feelings, perspectives are completely missing from the scene. They are really portrayed as the „other‟ because they are shown as not belonging to this real and worldly life.

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  • The ability of PHI to reduce demand pressures on the public system has nonetheless proven to be constrained. Increases in the population covered by PHI in Australia and Ireland have not resulted in unambiguous signs of decline in the level of waiting (Colombo and Tapay, 2003 and 2004b). PHI membership has not only shifted demand across public and private hospitals but has also increased overall demand, thereby limiting the impact on waiting times.

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  • Under GHI, the U.S. is striving to coordinate all of its health programming, but integration is not being pursued for the sake of integration alone. We are working towards “smart integration,” which means selecting those opportunities for integration that make sense technically, economically, and in the context in which they are to be implemented.

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  • The criteria used to assess measurements are summarised in Table 2.1. Full details are not presented here but have been documented and are available on request (Appendix 2). On the basis of the assessment, proposals were presented in December, January, March and April and reviewed by all project participants (steering group, expert group, project team). The wide range of interests and responsibilities of participants meant that an element of compromise was essential, given realistic expectations of resource availability.

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  • The comparative part will compare the above issues across Britain, France and the US. In this way, it can be ascertained how much of the consumption patterns are determined by local conditions and how much was part of a general trend. . It will be assessed how country differences can be explained; for example, whether differences in income elasticity’s can explain differences in diffusion patterns.

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  • All members of the social health insurance scheme are automatically covered by social long- term care insurance. The responsible long-term care insurance funds (Pflegekassen) are affiliated to the corresponding health insurance funds (Krankenkassen). Employees who are not covered by social LTC insurance are permitted to contract with a private long-term care insurance institution as long as they are members of a private health insurance scheme.

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  • It is said that farms having land to grow crops and forage (PK-3 and PK-10R) were relatively most competitive. The PK-10R farm is said to be most viable farm size, and has the potential of challenging competitors in export markets6. Such farms make effective use of technological advances in breeding practices, e.g., artificial insemination, to improve their herd quality. Some of them have also installed their own pasteurization or processing equipment. However, there are only 23% of farmers who fall in the PK-10R category, whereas 70% of the farmers have less than four animals.

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  • The ovaries stop releasing eggs (ova), and menstrual periods stop (Menopause). Most women experience menopause around age of 45 to 50. Prior to menopause, menstrual cycles often become irregular. The vaginal walls become less elastic, thinner, and less rigid. The vagina becomes shorter. Secretions become scant and watery. The external genital tissue decreases and thins (atrophy of the labia). A woman may experience changes in her sex drive (libido) and her sexual response may change, but aging does not prevent a woman from being able to have or enjoy sexual relationships.

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  • The decentralized, experimental nature of early economic reform is clear in Chinese establishment of Special Economic Zones – export-oriented enclaves that were allowed to detach themselves partially from the central administrative apparatus and to operate with considerable autonomy. Guangdong, which was allowed to set up its own foreign trade corporations, was a pioneer. On the eve of reform, Guangdong seemed to have few advantages. It had few natural resources, a low ratio of arable land per capita, and high rates of rural unemployment.

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