Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Wertheim cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: HIV-associated adipose redistribution syndrome (HARS): etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms...
Antidepressant Medications The tricyclic antidepressants [amitriptyline, imipramine, nortriptyline, desipramine (TCAs; Table 12-1)] are extremely useful for the management of patients with chronic pain. Although developed for the treatment of depression, the tricyclics have a spectrum of dose-related biologic activities that include the production of analgesia in a variety of clinical conditions. Although the mechanism is unknown, the analgesic effect of TCAs has a more rapid onset and occurs at a lower dose than is typically required for the treatment of depression.
The Spinal Cord and Referred Pain
The axons of primary afferent nociceptors enter the spinal cord via the dorsal root. They terminate in the dorsal horn of the spinal gray matter (Fig. 12-3). The terminals of primary afferent axons contact spinal neurons that transmit the pain signal to brain sites involved in pain perception. When primary afferents are activated by noxious stimuli, they release neurotransmitters from their terminals that excite the spinal cord neurons. The major neurotransmitter they release is glutamate, which rapidly excites dorsal horn neurons.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Pathophysiology of heart disease" presents the following contents: Heart failure, the cardiomyopathies, mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias, clinical aspects of cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, diseases of the pericardium, diseases of the peripheral vasculature, congenital heart disease.
Obesity is associated with a high prevalence of erectile dysfunction; how-ever, the pathophysiological link between obesity and erectile dysfunction
remains poorly understood. In this minireview, we have attempted to eval-uate the existing literature pertaining to obesity and erectile dysfunction to
determine whether a common pathophysiological link exists.
After completing this unit, you should be able to: Describe the normal characteristics of the cellular environment and the key homeostatic mechanisms that strive to maintain an optimal fluid and electrolyte balance; outline pathophysiological alterations in water and electrolyte balance and list their effects on body functions; describe the treatment of patients with particular fluid or electrolyte imbalances.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Pathophysiology of heart disease" presents the following contents: Basic cardiac structure and function, the cardiac cycle - Mechanisms of heart sounds and murmurs, cardiac imaging and catheterization, the electrocardiogram, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, acute coronary syndromes.
Diabetes mellitus and its complications are clinical conditions of growing
importance both from the clinical as well as epidemiological standpoint. The
relevance of diabetes at clinical and individual level is given by its lifethreatening
acute complications and, especially, by its chronic complications
affecting several organs and systems, with increased risk for ocular, renal,
cardiac, cerebral, nervous and peripheral vascular diseases.
Osteoporosis and fractures may increase due to hypoestrogenism in menopause and
cytochrome P450 inducing AEDs. Recent studies suggest lower bone mineral density (BMD)
in adults and children with epilepsy, irrespective of AED treatment.
Both idiopathic epilepsy and symptomatic epilepsy are associated with reduced BMD, with
the greatest reduction in symptomatic generalized epilepsy (Sheth & Hermann, 2008).
However, the pathophysiological underlying mechanisms are far from understood and likely
Autoimmune disease represents a group of more than 60 different chronic autoimmune
diseases that affect approximately 6% of the population. It is the third major category of
illness in the United States and many industrialized countries, following heart disease
and cancer. Autoimmune diseases arise when one’s immune system actively targets and
destroys self tissue resulting in clinical disease. Common examples include Systemic
Lupus Erythematosus, Type 1 Diabetes, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Multiple Sclerosis.
The primary role of tendon is to transmit the force of its associated muscle to bone. As such,
the tendon needs to be relatively stiff and strong under tension. Herzog (2007) have stated
that mechanical properties, such as fiber-bundle organization of the tendon allow for the
maintenance of high tensile strength, with considerable flexibility in bending, in the same
way that a wire rope maintains high tensile strength and flexibility as compared to an equal
cross-section of solid steel (e.g., Alexander (1988a); Alexander (1988b) and Wainwright et al.
As the international community moves toward a more robust recognition of both the
human rights of disabled persons and the reproductive rights of women, the intersection
comprising the right of disabled women to reproductive freedom must be given full atten-
tion. This briefing paper proposes a human rights framework for considering the repro-
ductive rights of women with disabilities, taking into consideration international human
rights laws and instruments and global consensus documents.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học 'Respiratory Research cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: "Oxygen-sensing mechanisms and the regulation of redox-responsive transcription factors in development and pathophysiology...
Considerable recent detail is provided on
cytokines and signalling mechanisms which translate immune events into cellular
pathology including prostaglandins (Andrey Sorokin), endoplasmic reticulum (Reiko
Inagi), mTOR receptors (Lena Succar et al.), STAT3 signalling pathways (Fumio Tsuji
et al.), TGF-ß (Hyun Soon Lee) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Maki
Urushihara et al.). Animal models (Elena Goiman et al., Chia-Chao Wu et al., María
Ángeles Jiménez et al.) and end results such as urinary biomarkers (Sophie Ohlsson)
are updated as well....
Develop an essential understanding of the principles of equine disease with this one-of-a-kind, problem-based resource! Extensively revised and updated with contributions from an international team of experts, Equine Internal Medicine, 3rd Edition reflects the latest clinical research in equine medicine and focuses on the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie the development of various equine diseases to help you confidently diagnose, treat, and manage patient conditions.
The human body as a mechanism is far from perfect. It can be beaten or surpassed at almost every point by
some product of the machine-shop or some animal. It does almost nothing perfectly or with absolute
precision. As Huxley most unexpectedly remarked a score of years ago, "If a manufacturer of optical
instruments were to hand us for laboratory use an instrument so full of defects and imperfections as the human
eye, we should promptly decline to accept it and return it to him. But," as he went on to say, "while the eye is
inaccurate as a microscope, imperfect as a telescope, crude...
Disorders of Vascular Tone or Blood Volume
Disorders of vascular tone or blood volume that can cause syncope include the reflex syncopes and a number of conditions resulting in orthostatic intolerance. The reflex syncopes—including neurocardiogenic syncope, situational syncope, and carotid sinus hypersensitivity—share common autonomic nervous system pathophysiologic mechanisms: a cardioinhibitory component (e.g., bradycardia due to increased vagal activity), a vasodepressor component (e.g., inappropriate vasodilatation due to sympathetic withdrawal), or both.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common disease of the central nervous system, affecting
young women in particular. This disease can devastate the professional and social life of
those affected. There has been a recent explosion in knowledge about how to diagnose
MS and understand its pathophysiological mechanisms as well as provide efficacious treatment.
The third edition of the Handbook of Multiple Sclerosis has documented the impressive
and dramatic advances that have occurred. In particular, the immunopathology of the
disease is now well established.
When searching the history of antiphospholipid antibodies one must meet cornerstone in
Graham Hughes’s descriptions of antiphospholipid syndrome in his “Prosser-White
Oration” to the British Society of Dermatology in 1983 (Hughes GRV; 1984). The main points
of his lecture can be found in different publications (Hughes GRV; 1984, Hughes GRV; 1999,
Khamastha MA; 2000) and they are still truthful although they have been expressed almost
thirty years ago.
Sleep-related breathing disorders have been recognized and described by
astute clinicians for millennia. The past several decades have witnessed
intensive and accelerating investigation into the epidemiology, genetics,
pathophysiology, and clinical as well as behavioral consequences of sleeprelated
breathing disorders. The Lung Biology in Health and Disease series
has played an important role in consolidating the accumulating knowledge
in this area and in providing a focused view of the state of the art.