Pathophysiological changes

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  • Sympathetically Maintained Pain Patients with peripheral nerve injury can develop a severe burning pain (causalgia) in the region innervated by the nerve. The pain typically begins after a delay of hours to days or even weeks. The pain is accompanied by swelling of the extremity, periarticular osteoporosis, and arthritic changes in the distal joints. The pain is dramatically and immediately relieved by blocking the sympathetic innervation of the affected extremity.

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  • Mainly, the genome project has fundamentally changed the way in which we approach questions in biology. The technology that the genome project has enabled, rather than the data it has produced, has induced the most profound impact on our conduct of biological research. In particular, functional genomics approaches, suchs as DNA microarrays, proteomics and metabolomics have greatly increased the rate at which we can generate data on biological systems allowing us, to begin to observe on a molecular level the holistic response of an organism to a particular stimulus (Quackenbush, 2006)....

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  • There is now widespread consensus that the Earth is warming at a rate unprece- dented during post hunter-gatherer human existence. The last decade was the warmest since instrumental records began in the nineteenth century, and con- tained 9 of the 10 warmest years ever recorded. The causes of this change are increasingly well understood.

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  • Massey’s International Business programme is offered by the School of Management within the College of Business. It offers a comprehensive range of papers, which cover specialised skills and an innovative outlook. Together with a focus on the impact of the global environment on the functional areas of international business, the programme considers areas such as cross-cultural management, international business strategy, the political economy of international business, regional economic integration and contemporary issues relevant to the study of international business.

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  • Exact evidence about incidence of sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy is not available, but it is supposed, that the amount is higher in patients with epilepsy than in general population. For example patients with partial epilepsy have twice higher appearence of sleep disorders as in healthy group (39% vs 18%) (Bazil, 2003). According to this study higher presence of sleep disorders did not correlate with antiepileptic therapy. According to Foldvary-Schaefer (2002) patients with epilepsy have problems with initialization of sleep and have worse quality of sleep.

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  • It is essential to monitor intracranial pressure, CPP, and brain oxygenation during ventilatory support in the patients with traumatic brain injury. Brain oxygenation monitoring technics are jugular venous saturation monitoring, near-infrared spectroscopy and microdialysis catheters. Availability and cost of these devices are limiting factors to their use. The studies on brain trauma patients shows that there is no proven mortality benefit in continuous ICP monitoring.

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  • Low intakes of fiber tend to reflect low intakes of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Low intakes of calcium  tend to reflect low intakes of milk and milk products. Low intakes of vitamins A (as carotenoids) and C and magne­ sium tend to reflect low intakes of fruits and vegetables. Selecting fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low­fat and fat­free milk and milk products in the amounts suggested by the USDA Food Guide and the DASH Eating Plan will provide adequate amounts of these nutrients.

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  • Conversely, judges may assign one or two beers much higher scores than other beers simply because they stand out as being much more flavorful (extreme scoring). In addition, as judges become tired (and possibly intoxicated) during long flights, they may allow impressions of some very noticeable characteristics of particular beers to overly influence their perceptions (and scores) of other characteristics of the beers (halo effect). For example, a weizen that is too dark may (falsely) also seem too heavy and caramel-flavored.

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  • It is only 26 years since the first percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was carried out by the pioneering Swiss radiologist, Andreas Greuntzig, heralding the dawn of interventional cardiology. In this short time, interventional cardiology has overcome many limitations and undergone major evolutionary changes—most notably the development of the coronary stent. Worldwide, many thousands of patients now safely undergo percutaneous coronary intervention every day, and the numbers continue to grow.

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  • Because of improvements in air quality, such deadly air pollution episodes are rare in U.S. cities. Modern research methods have shown, however, that deaths and serious illnesses from common air pollutants still occur at levels well below regulatory standards, and at current levels in New York and most large cities. Local actions to further reduce air pollution will mean changes in policies and behaviors, and will require significant investments in new vehicles and other equipment.

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  • The main objective of this work is to develop an economically viable process for producing papermaking fibres of adequate quality and generating energy from wheat straw. Wheat straw was selected as the raw material since wheat is cultivated and available worldwide (Curtis 2002) and only a minor part of the straw is used for energy production or animal feed. One of the primary aims in this work is to find ways to store the raw material chemically between the harvesting periods and examine the effects on pulping and pulp properties (Paper IV). In addition, the aim of this work is...

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  • The direct effect of probiotics in the lumen include the competition with pathogens for nutrients, production of antimicrobial substances and in particular organic acids competitive inhibition on the receptor sites, change in the composition of mucin hydrolysis of toxins, receptor hydrolysis, and nitric oxide (NO). The indirect effect of probiotics largely depends on the site of interaction between the probiotic and the effectors of the immune response. Thantasha et al.

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  • The Commission is addressing governments, directly and through their various agencies and ministries. The congregation of governments, gathered in the General Assembly of the United Nations, will be the main recipients of this report. The Commission is also addressing private enterprise, from the one-person business to the great multinational company with a total economic turnover greater than that of many nations, and with possibilities for bringing about far-reaching changes and improvements.

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  • Be sure that you understand everything in the lease. If you want something changed, you can do so right on the lease, by crossing that part out, writing in the changes, and having both parties initial the new wording. Do this on both your copy of the lease and on your landlord’s copy. (ex. “both parties agree that the pet fee is refundable.”) If you and your landlord agree on a particular meaning for an ambiguous term, then you may write in the clearer term and initial the newly agreed upon meaning. Be sure to...

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  • The components of a loosely coupled system are typically designed to operate by generating and responding to asynchronous events. An event notification service is an application-independent in- frastructure that supports the construction of event-based systems, whereby generators of events publish event notifications to the infrastructure and consumers of events subscribe with the infras- tructure to receive relevant notifications. The two primary services that should be provided to com- ponents by the infrastructure are notification selection (i.e.

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  • The result of these constructions is that narrative proceeds in a straight trajectory through time. Any transitions that break linearity (for example, flashbacks) are carefully prepared for and all narrative threads are sewn together at the end. The continuity style is a remarkable form because of its persistence, its invisibility, and because we learn how to read it easily and without any instruction than seeing the films themselves.

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  • Korea’s experience also illustrates how good crisis management can accelerate structural adjustment. The Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s led to significant down-sizing among large firms in Korea. This process was characterized by mass lay-offs of highly-skilled personnel, and large reductions in corporate R&D spending. The response of the Korean government, in addition to boosting education expenditure, was to increase its R&D budget, to offset the decline in corporate R&D spending.

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  • Azzaroli et al. dedicated their chapter to the most prescribed medications worldwide, namely non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These drugs are prescribed for pain management in musculoskeletal or osteoarticolar pathologies because of their analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, however, major side effect associated with NSAIDs include gastrointestinal bleedings from both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract.

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  • Current radical surgery against localized prostate cancer (PCa), such as open (Memmelaar, 1949; Reiner & Walsh, 1979; Walsh & Donker, 1982), laparoscopic (Schuessler et al., 1997; Abbou et al., 2000; Guillonneau et al., 2003) or robot-assisted prostatectomy (Binder & Kramer, 2001; Menon et al., 2002; Menon et al., 2004), has a possible risk to injure supporting structures that surround and support the prostate as well as the external sphincter and the neurovascular bundle.

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  • The Hindus and the Muslims liked and trusted him. Mary had known him all her life. When her father died, still a young man, and she and her mother had returned to England, Edgar Swift, whenever he came home on leave, spent a great part of his time with them. As a child he took her to the pantomime or the circus; as a girl in her teens, to the pictures or to the theatre; he sent her presents for her birthday and at Christmas. When she was nineteen her mother had said to her: `I wouldn't see too much...

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