Pathophysiological

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  • .Pathophysiology and Clinical Aspects of Venous Thromboembolism in Neonates, Renal Disease and Cancer Patients Edited by Mohammed A. Abdelaal Published by InTech Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia Copyright © 2012 InTech All chapters are Open Access distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, which allows users to download, copy and build upon published articles even for commercial purposes, as long as the author and publisher are properly credited, which ensures maximum dissemination and a wider impact of our publications....

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 12. Pain: Pathophysiology and Management Pain: Pathophysiology and Management: Introduction The task of medicine is to preserve and restore health and to relieve suffering. Understanding pain is essential to both these goals. Because pain is universally understood as a signal of disease, it is the most common symptom that brings a patient to a physician's attention. The function of the pain sensory system is to protect the body and maintain homeostasis. It does this by detecting, localizing, and identifying tissue-damaging processes.

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  • There is a great difference between the superficial reading of a film and the proper interpretation of a clinical scintigraphic image by an imaging specialist. Fully utilizing the clinical image, the imaging specialist evaluates both the anatomical and the physiological structure of the human body. First the specialist must appreciate the patient’s clinical problem.Working from this clinical context, he then applies his understanding of the pathophysiological basis of disease and his knowledge of how such pathology may translate into various imaging patterns.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'addictions – from pathophysiology to treatment edited by david belin', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • After completing this unit, you should be able to: Describe the normal characteristics of the cellular environment and the key homeostatic mechanisms that strive to maintain an optimal fluid and electrolyte balance; outline pathophysiological alterations in water and electrolyte balance and list their effects on body functions; describe the treatment of patients with particular fluid or electrolyte imbalances.

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  • Physiology's classic text continues to uphold its rich tradition-presenting key physiology concepts in a remarkably clear and engaging manner. Guyton & Hall's Textbook of Medical Physiology covers all of the major systems in the human body, while emphasizing system interaction, homeostasis, and pathophysiology. This very readable, easy-to-follow, and thoroughly updated, 11th Edition features a new full-color layout, short chapters, clinical vignettes, and shaded summary tables that allow for easy comprehension of the material. ...

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  • Diabetes mellitus is a complex, progressive disease, which is accompanied by multiple complications. It is a metabolic disorder of the endocrine system and listed among the most common disorders in both developed and developing countries. It has a global metabolic epidemic and it is estimated that the number of people affected by the disease will rise from the current 150 to 230 million by 2025. Hyperglycaemia is a characteristic feature of diabetes mellitus and chronic hyperglycaemia could lead to long-term complications in the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels.

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  • Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathophysiology for Allied Health, first edition, is an introductory book to the body systems for medical assisting students. It acquaints students with basic information about all of the body systems. The book speaks directly to the student, with chapter introductions, case studies, and chapter summaries written to engage the student’s attention. When referring to patients in the third person, we have alternated between passages that describe a male patient and passages that describe a female patient.

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  • In addition, although more rare, some patients might not present until weeks, if not longer, after their infarction with symptoms that prompt the discovery of a chronic PI- VSD. Early PI-VSDs tend to be catastrophic and typically result in early death.

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  •   and to make other personal use of the work. Any republication, referencing or personal use of the work must explicitly identify the original source. As for readers, this license allows users to download, copy and build upon published chapters even for commercial purposes, as long as the author and publisher are properly credited, which ensures maximum dissemination and a wider impact of our publications.

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  • Treatment of Neuropathic Pain It is important to individualize treatment for patients with neuropathic pain. Several general principles should guide therapy: the first is to move quickly to provide relief; a second is to minimize drug side effects. For example, in patients with postherpetic neuralgia and significant cutaneous hypersensitivity, topical lidocaine (Lidoderm patches) can provide immediate relief without side effects. Anticonvulsants (gabapentin or pregabalin, see above) or antidepressants can be used as first-line drugs for patients with neuropathic pain.

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  • Celiac Disease (CD) or Gluten Sensitive Enteropathy (GSE) is a life‐long disorder. It is characterized by inflammation in the small intestine of genetically predisposed individuals caused by inappropriate immune response to gluten, a protein enriched in some of our common grains (wheat, rye and barley). The toxicity of gluten is manifested by the autoimmune action of T‐lymphocytes on mucosal cells in the small intestine, disrupting its vital function of absorbing nutrients from food.

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  • Any republication, referencing or personal use of the work must explicitly identify the original source. Notice Statements and opinions expressed in the chapters are these of the individual contributors and not necessarily those of the editors or publisher.

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  • Sensitization When intense, repeated, or prolonged stimuli are applied to damaged or inflamed tissues, the threshold for activating primary afferent nociceptors is lowered and the frequency of firing is higher for all stimulus intensities. Inflammatory mediators such as bradykinin, nerve growth factor, some prostaglandins, and leukotrienes contribute to this process, which is called sensitization. In sensitized tissues, normally innocuous stimuli can produce pain. Sensitization is a clinically important process that contributes to tenderness, soreness, and hyperalgesia.

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  • Antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and antiarrhythmics have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of pain.bGabapentin in doses up to 1800 mg/d is FDA approved for postherpetic neuralgia.Note: 5-HT, serotonin; NE, norepinephrine.Since they are effective for these common types of pain and are available without prescription, COX inhibitors are by far the most commonly used analgesics. They are absorbed well from the gastrointestinal tract and, with occasional use, have only minimal side effects.

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  • Antidepressant Medications The tricyclic antidepressants [amitriptyline, imipramine, nortriptyline, desipramine (TCAs; Table 12-1)] are extremely useful for the management of patients with chronic pain. Although developed for the treatment of depression, the tricyclics have a spectrum of dose-related biologic activities that include the production of analgesia in a variety of clinical conditions. Although the mechanism is unknown, the analgesic effect of TCAs has a more rapid onset and occurs at a lower dose than is typically required for the treatment of depression.

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  • Central Mechanisms The Spinal Cord and Referred Pain The axons of primary afferent nociceptors enter the spinal cord via the dorsal root. They terminate in the dorsal horn of the spinal gray matter (Fig. 12-3). The terminals of primary afferent axons contact spinal neurons that transmit the pain signal to brain sites involved in pain perception. When primary afferents are activated by noxious stimuli, they release neurotransmitters from their terminals that excite the spinal cord neurons. The major neurotransmitter they release is glutamate, which rapidly excites dorsal horn neurons.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: IL-2 as a therapeutic target for the restoration of Foxp3+ regulatory T cell function in organ-specific autoimmunity: implications in pathophysiology and translation to human disease

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  • Opioid and COX Inhibitor Combinations When used in combination, opioids and COX inhibitors have additive effects. Because a lower dose of each can be used to achieve the same degree of pain relief, and their side effects are nonadditive, such combinations can be used to lower the severity of dose-related side effects. Fixed-ratio combinations of an opioid with acetaminophen carry a special risk. Dose escalation as a result of increased severity of pain or decreased opioid effect as a result of tolerance may lead to levels of acetaminophen that are toxic to the liver.

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  • Sympathetically Maintained Pain Patients with peripheral nerve injury can develop a severe burning pain (causalgia) in the region innervated by the nerve. The pain typically begins after a delay of hours to days or even weeks. The pain is accompanied by swelling of the extremity, periarticular osteoporosis, and arthritic changes in the distal joints. The pain is dramatically and immediately relieved by blocking the sympathetic innervation of the affected extremity.

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