Pathophysiology related

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  • Antidepressant Medications The tricyclic antidepressants [amitriptyline, imipramine, nortriptyline, desipramine (TCAs; Table 12-1)] are extremely useful for the management of patients with chronic pain. Although developed for the treatment of depression, the tricyclics have a spectrum of dose-related biologic activities that include the production of analgesia in a variety of clinical conditions. Although the mechanism is unknown, the analgesic effect of TCAs has a more rapid onset and occurs at a lower dose than is typically required for the treatment of depression.

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  • Opioid and COX Inhibitor Combinations When used in combination, opioids and COX inhibitors have additive effects. Because a lower dose of each can be used to achieve the same degree of pain relief, and their side effects are nonadditive, such combinations can be used to lower the severity of dose-related side effects. Fixed-ratio combinations of an opioid with acetaminophen carry a special risk. Dose escalation as a result of increased severity of pain or decreased opioid effect as a result of tolerance may lead to levels of acetaminophen that are toxic to the liver.

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  • Pathophysiology Bone marrow failure results from severe damage to the hematopoietic cell compartment. In aplastic anemia, replacement of the bone marrow by fat is apparent in the morphology of the biopsy specimen (Fig. 102-1) and MRI of the spine. Cells bearing the CD34 antigen, a marker of early hematopoietic cells, are greatly diminished, and in functional studies, committed and primitive progenitor cells are virtually absent; in vitro assays have suggested that the stem cell pool is reduced to ≤1% of normal in severe disease at the time of presentation. Figure 102-1 A.

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  • Obesity is associated with a high prevalence of erectile dysfunction; how-ever, the pathophysiological link between obesity and erectile dysfunction remains poorly understood. In this minireview, we have attempted to eval-uate the existing literature pertaining to obesity and erectile dysfunction to determine whether a common pathophysiological link exists.

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  • The inevitability of a disease sounds a clarion for its prevention, or at least its control. Understanding its pathophysiology is essential to that process. For osteoarthritis, preconceived notions and mythology must be transcended to allow identification of its essentials. The first step was to establish a scientific basis for its recognition. Sorting associated phenomenon allowed identification of those which are non-diagnostic, and one major finding which is pathognomonic: the joint osteophyte.

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  • In September 2006, as a result of advocacy by international and national non-governmental organisations (NGOs), the United Nations (UN) General Assembly finally adopted the target of universal access to reproductive health. This health key issues guide explores issues relating to universal access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services using a rights-based approach. The guide examines factors that inhibit access to and use of SRH services, and discusses methods for removing barriers to care and improving access.

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  • Over the past six decades, tourism has experienced continued expansion and diversification becoming one of the largest and fastest growing economic sectors in the world. Many new destinations have emerged alongside the traditional ones of Europe and North America. In the next years an increase of travelling is expected, and the number of related infections will also be higher (http://www.unwto.org/facts/menu.html). Rickettsioses are an important chapter in the field of travel medicine.

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  • Because of improvements in air quality, such deadly air pollution episodes are rare in U.S. cities. Modern research methods have shown, however, that deaths and serious illnesses from common air pollutants still occur at levels well below regulatory standards, and at current levels in New York and most large cities. Local actions to further reduce air pollution will mean changes in policies and behaviors, and will require significant investments in new vehicles and other equipment.

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  • Noninvasive cardiac imaging is an integral part of the practice of current clinical cardiology. During the past three decades a number of distinctly different noninvasive imaging techniques of the heart, such as radionuclide imaging, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and X-ray computed tomography have been developed. Remarkable progress has been made by each of these technologies in terms of technical advances, clinical procedures, and clinical applications/indications.

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  • This guidance complements existing national initiatives to promote social and emotional wellbeing. It should be considered in the context of the Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL) programme (Department for Education and Skills 2005a; 2005b), the Healthy Schools programme (Department for Education and Skills 2005c) and related community-based initiatives. These all stress the importance of enabling children to participate fully in the development of such programmes to ensure their views are heard. ...

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  • Peter Farmer reported having received remuneration for consultancy from a commercial entity or other organization with an interest related to the subject of air pollution. Matti Jantunen and Naohide Shinohara reported having received remuneration for consulting from a commercial entity or other organization with an interest related to the subject of air pollution and having received research support from a commercial entity or other organization with an interest related to the subject of air pollution.

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  • The OMA recognized the need to explore not only the direct health effects of air pollution but also the need to understand the associated economic ramifications for the provincial health care system as well as for Ontario more generally. To this end, a feasibility study was undertaken, the purpose of which was to determine how best to develop appropriate estimates of the economic damages relating to air pollution-induced illnesses (42).

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  • Any gain or loss from disposal of a segment of a business (product sector), together with the results of these operations until the date of disposal, are reported separately as discontinued operations. The financial information of a discontinued segment of business is excluded from the respective captions in the consolidated financial statements and related notes. Comparative figures for prior periods are restated accordingly.

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  • The field of insect pathology has grown steadily since its inception as a formal academic discipline in the mid-1940s (Steinhaus, 1949). Concomitantly, the applied side of insect pathology has also grown considerably resulting in the commercial development of bacterial, viral, fungal and nematode entomopathogens as microbial control agents.

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  • For purposes of deriving/identifying categories, references having to do with courtship, sex, pair-bonding, parenting, fidelity, mate guarding, and provisioning were initially targeted, along with themes related to long-term as well as short-term mating strategies. In the process of attempting to code the lyrics it became apparent that emotional expressions could be partitioned into different action references. For instance, “love” could either convey commitment, fidelity assurance, or a non-specific state. “Love” represents commitment when sung as “I love you.

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  • Sales are generally recognized at the time the product is delivered to the customer, net of sales taxes, customer discounts, rebates and similar charges. Service revenue is recognized over the contractual period or as services are rendered. Revenues from long-term contracts are recognized in accordance with the percentage of completion method. Provision for estimated contract losses, if any, is made in the period that such losses are determined. Royalty income is recognized on an accrual basis.

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  • The questionnaire-based approach centred on the 8 Data Protection principles is usually confined to a set number of areas chosen for discussion and inspection. In terms of larger organisations, the scope of the audit may be defined well in advance and limited to named functional areas e.g. the human resources unit of a large retailer or the Planning, Waste Management and Motor Tax Office divisions of a local authority. Areas or units selected for inspection may be selected based on their physical suitability or for reasons relating to the technical infrastructure in place e.g.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học 'Respiratory Research cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài:The pathophysiological function of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in lung-related diseases...

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  • The quantity of adenovirus-DNA decreases in an age- related manner, either from immune elimination or from depletion of latent stores. Persistent or latent infection of other species is still unknown. Acute renal failure due to adenoviruses is caused by disseminated disease or retrograde infection from hemorrhagic cystitis. High persistence of serotype 2 at a young age is mentioned in lots of case reports regarding disseminated diseases of this serotype after stem cell transplantation.

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  • Internationally, it describes how we must work more intensively with the European Union and through our bilateral relationships with countries all around the world to shape an international environment that supports openness. It sets out how Governments can collaborate to manage new global challenges such as climate change, food security, natural resource pressures and the impact of new technologies.

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