The way in which examinations influence teaching and learning is commonly described as “washback” or “backwash”. A number of definitions have been proposed for the term “washback” throughout the published research and literature on language testing. This study starts with a focus on the various definitions of backwash or washback. Next, it examines the similar concept terms defined by other researchers. By reviewing the variety of definitions, the researcher’s own view of washback will be reached. Comes after that are the explorations of different types of washback. ...
Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review
This report critically reviews the literature on learning styles and examines in detail 13 of the most influential models. The report concludes that it matters fundamentally which instrument is chosen. The implications for teaching and learning in post-16 learning are serious and should be of concern to learners, teachers and trainers, managers, researchers and inspectors.
Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning A systematic and critical review LSRC reference
In this paper we discuss a mechanism for modifying context in a tutorial dialogue. The context mechanism imposes a pedagogically motivated misrepresentation (PMM) on a dialogue to achieve instructional goals. In the paper, we outline several types of PMMs and detail a particular PMM in a sample dialogue situation. While the notion of PMMs are specifically oriented towards tutorial dialogue, m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n has interesting implications for context in dialogue situations generally, and also suggests that Grice's maxim of quality needs to be modified....