Pension system

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  • This note presents the simplest overlapping generations model. The model is due to Diamond (1965), who built on earlier work by Samuelson (1958). Overlapping generations models capture the fact that individuals do not live forever, but die at some point and thus have finite life-cycles. Overlapping generations models are especially useful for analysing the macro-economic effects of different pension systems.

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  • At the peak of the stock market boom in the late 1990s, state and local public pension systems experienced an unprecedented growth in their asset value. As a result, pension benefits for public employees were increased in many states and at the same time government employers reduced their contribution to the pension systems. The stock market downturn between 2000 and 2002, however, brought this almost perfect combination to a halt.

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  • We focus on four national characteristics to explain the size of the mutual fund industry across countries: law and regulation; demand characteristics; supply side factors; and the nature of the securities markets. Countries with a stronger judicial system, more stringent regulatory approval and disclosure requirements for funds tend to have a larger fund industry. This suggests that stronger regulation may be beneficial to the fund industry.

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  • CRITICAL SKILL 1.1: Define a Database Database you say—now there's a word you hear all the time! In a nutshell, a database is an electronic collection of information designed to meet a handful of needs:
     Databases provide one-stop shopping for all your data storage requirements. The database contains any amount of data, from the small to the huge.
     Databases must provide mechanisms to retrieve data quickly as applications interact with their contents.

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  • Database you say—now there's a word you hear all the time! In a nutshell, a database is an electronic collection of information designed to meet a handful of needs:  Databases provide one-stop shopping for all your data storage requirements. The database contains any amount of data, from the small to the huge.  Databases must provide mechanisms to retrieve data quickly as applications interact with their contents.  Databases allow the sharing of corporate data such that personnel data is shared amongst one's payroll, benefits, and pension systems....

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  • under the multiemployer insurance program, PBgC generally provides financial assistance to an insolvent plan in the form of a loan or loans, although it occasionally provides lump-sum settlements in lieu of future financial assistance. loans are usually made quarterly but sometimes monthly in an amount which, when combined with the plan’s other income, covers both the plan’s reasonable administrative expenses and its statutorily guaranteed benefits payments.

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  • Since the early 1970s, a quiet revolution – microfinance – has been sweeping the globe. Poverty can now, in part, be redefined as a lack of access to reliable, affordable financial services that enables people to build economic security and improve their lives. Microfinance, which has evolved in an array of formats, from regulated banks to Village Savings and Loan Associations (VSlAs), has made life better for millions, first through access to credit, but increasingly through savings, insurance and pension schemes as well.

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  • When considering demand side factors, we find that wealthier countries, measured by GDP per capita, and countries with a more educated population have a larger mutual fund sector. These effects are particularly pronounced for the equity sector, which may require a higher level of investor sophistication. Internet penetration is also positively related to the size of the mutual fund sector, but it is highly correlated with the other demand size variables.

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  • A further reason for the lack of green investments by pension funds is that their asset allocation to private equity and particularly infrastructure related assets in general remains limited.

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  • Our aim is to contribute to the above literature by proposing a life-cycle model with individual income uncertainty that can be used to assess how various macroeconomic factors a®ect the equilibrium value of household credit. We show that its value de- pends on (i) the lending-deposit interest rate spread, (ii) individual income uncertainty, (iii) individual productivity persistence, and (iv) the generosity of the pension system.

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  • Accounting standards around the world have evolved over centuries of business and capital market development. In this process, accounting standards historically were designed to meet the needs of each nation’s capital markets. Those stan- dards that were found to work well in the legal, cultural, political and economic context of each nation became the “generally accepted accounting principles,” or GAAP, for that particular jurisdiction. Naturally, different norms in each nation led to different GAAPs in each nation.

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  • The model describes the behaviour of consumers, which are heterogeneous in terms of age, income and ¯nancial assets. They maximize the utility from consumption sub- ject to the life-cycle budget constraint. Their savings are remunerated at the deposit interest rate and the cost of borrowing is given by the lending rate. When young, con- sumers work and receive wages that depend on an idiosyncratic, stochastic component and a deterministic life-cycle pro¯le of productivity. When old, they are on a manda- tory retirement and receive pensions.

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  • However, a number of member jurisdictions’ national laws implementing the investment rules of the current Solvency I Directives15 do refer to, or place reliance on, ratings in order to determine whether a certain asset is authorised or eligible to cover technical provisions. Moreover, in a number of member jurisdictions, (re)insurance undertakings are required, as part of their internal reinsurance policy, to pay special attention to the financial strength of their reinsurers, using ratings as a proxy.

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  • In the wake of the Great Recession of 2007–2009, however, many of these institu- tional investors now say they are eager to diversify their portfolios by investing in infrastructure. The California Public Employees’ Retirement System, for example, has already allotted $4 billion to be invested in U.S. infrastructure projects over the next three years. 9 The success of so-called Build America Bonds has demonstrated that alternatives to traditional municipal bonds can have success in attracting pension funds and inter- national investors.

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  • Some of the benefits of registration are that registered fund managers (i) may have 15 or more clients; (ii) will be able to allow significant participation by corporate pensions under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended; (iii) may attract certain government employee benefit plans that require their managers to be registered investment advisers; and (iv) will be permitted to hold themselves out broadly to the public as investment advisers to attract clients, generally, provided they do so in a manner that does not run afoul of the private placement of inter...

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  • The SB interest rate was decreased in March 2003, from 4% to 3.5%, when inflation was around 3%. In April 2010, after RBI changed the method of calculating interest on SB accounts, the depositors saw an increase in their returns on savings. However, the fluctuating inflation has been very high in recent years. The SB deposits are the major source of savings (investment) for many depositors, including pensioners, small savers and senior citizens. Not having the ability to be good money managers, such persons are getting high negative returns on their hard earned monies.

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  • A key priority of the state in this regard probably should be a funding plan to address CalSTRS’ unfunded liabilities. Additional funding from the state, districts, and/or teachers of over $3 billion per year (and growing over time) likely will be required to keep CalSTRS solvent and retire its unfunded liabilities over the next several decades. Under a resolution approved by both houses of the Legislature this year, CalSTRS will submit several proposals in February 2013 for how to better fund the system in the future.

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  • As a prelude to formal training in therapeutic patient education* an introductory course is recommended to motivate interested prospec- tive candidates and inform them about the nature and significance of the subject. Two levels of training in therapeutic patient education* are in use: basic and postbasic. Basic training concerns the practice of therapeutic patient educa- tion*. It is directed mainly at those who treat patients who need to learn how to manage their disease.

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  • The retirement crisis is directly attributable to the breakdown of the traditional “three-legged stool” of retirement security – pensions, savings, and Social Security. Defined benefit pension plans used to play an enormous role in providing a reliable source of retirement income, but the pension system has been in decline for decades. At the same time, stagnant wages and rising costs are making it harder and harder to build up a nest egg through a retirement savings plan (e.g., a 401(k) or IRA) or otherwise.

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  • This section lays out a two-part plan to solve the retirement crisis by making some bold changes to the private retirement system and Social Security. The first proposal would rebuild the private pension system by providing universal access to Universal, Secure, and Adaptable (“USA”) Retirement Funds, a new type of private pension plan that would give people the opportunity to earn a secure benefit and would be easy for employers to offer.

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