Environmental toxins, including exposure to lead, pesticides, and other chemicals,
unquestionably affect fertility in men and women. Researchers have documented many
examples, the strongest cases involving industrial and occupational exposures. These usually
involve small numbers of people exposed to high levels of contamination.
The Pesticide-Induced Diseases Database, launched by Beyond
Pesticides, facilitates access to epidemiologic and laboratory
studies based on real world exposure scenarios that link public
health effects to pesticides. The scientific literature documents
elevated rates of chronic diseases among people exposed to
pesticides, with increasing numbers of studies associated with
both specific illnesses and a range of illnesses.
Many occupational eye injuries occur because workers are not
wearing any eye protection while others result from wearing
improper or poorly fitting eye protection. Employers must be sure
that their employees wear appropriate eye and face protection and
that the selected form of protection is appropriate to the work being
performed and properly fits each worker exposed to the hazard.
Education is an important tool in the fight
against HIV/AIDS. And while most schools
are welcoming to children, some schools
fail to provide the necessary protection for
children to flourish and, in fact, may expose
young people – especially girls – to violence.
School cultures can contribute to gender
violence. Often, gender stereotypes and
inequities abound in the classroom, where
different behaviours and roles are expected
from girls and boys. Gender-based school
violence takes many forms.
Satellite Communication can be an effective strategy to meet this need in a
technology-supported, cost-effective and time-efficient manner. This is evident from the
observation of Geray et al. (2007) who conducted a study to understand the level of actual
exposure and the types of young people exposed to a global media campaign to promote HIV
prevention among 16- to 25-year-olds by MTV programme “Staying Alive,” in 2002.
Although passive exposure to tobacco smoke has been linked
to a number of health problems, it is unresolved whether it
alters breast cancer risk. Most, but not all, studies that
compared women who were passively exposed to tobacco
smoke to women with no exposure to tobacco smoke reported
an association of passive smoking with an increased risk of
breast cancer. Only two of these studies showed a “dose-
relationship”, where an increase in breast cancer risk was
related to more tobacco smoke exposure.
Useful as it is however, the NCI Metathesaurus is not well suited to serve as a coding nomenclature1
hierarchies of the NCI terminology in NCI Metathesaurus are not true IS_A hierarchies, for example. The
NCI Thésaurus, which became operational in late 2001, is designed to address this need. It is intended for
NCI offices and divisions to use the Thésaurus as a source of codes associated with terminology concepts
to annotate data and other information artifacts and facilitate information retrieval.
Sociology is a curious discipline. Its objects of attention are both the taken-for-granted
and the exceptional. It looks at the everyday experience and the extraordinary events as
problematic; suffused with simultaneous and conflicting yet flourishing negotiations.
Moved by this insight Peter Berger opened up his famed book with this poignant
statement: “It can be said that the first wisdom of sociology is this: things are not what
they seem…. Social reality turns out to have many layers of meaning. The discovery of
each new layer changes the perception of the whole.
How are pollutants transformed after their release into the environment? How are organisms exposed, and how do physiological alterations impact population dynamics and community structure? What direct or indirect impacts occur? As early as the 50s and 60s people living near industrial plants began to recognize undesirable changes in their environment - and to ask these very questions. The discipline of environmental toxicology addresses these questions.
I/ Choose the word or phrase that best completes the sentence. Circle A, B, C or D
1. …..is used for window panes because it is transparent.
A. Glass B. Wood C. clay D. zine
2. The long axis of the buliding is orientated east-west to minimize the area of wall…to the sun.
A.expose B. exposed C. exposing D. to expose
3. The ceramic tiles can’t be scratched easily by people walking on them because they are…
A. soft B. hard C.rigid D. flexible
4. Rod materials are typically used for… construction buildings.
A. planar B. mass C. frame D. primitive
The environmental metals of greatest concern are lead, mercury, arsenic, and cadmium. In the past,
lead paint was available for use in homes, and lead pipes and/or lead solder delivered water to some
homes. As a result, people can be exposed to lead on a daily basis; this exposure is a major pediatric
concern. Mercury similarly is a contaminant of our environment; human beings are exposed to
mercury in the fish they eat as well as in the amalgam fillings in their teeth.
Fossil fuel combustion for transportation contributes to air pollution, and air pollution
degrades human health. However, the path from transportation to human health costs is anything
but straightforward. Which pollutants are produced in which proportions depend on a number of
factors, including the vehicle and fuel used and the driving conditions of a particular trip. These
emissions are dispersed into the ambient air according to atmospheric conditions, which also
influence the extent to which they react to form secondary pollutants.
A few years ago, I wrote a book with a colleague about open source ESBs (Enterprise
Service Buses), Open Source ESBs in Action (Manning, 2008). In that book we wrote
about using open source tools to integrate applications and expose legacy systems as
services. In the years that followed, ESBs were seen as one of the cornerstones of developing
Service Oriented Architectures (SOAs). In 2008, when people talked about SOA,
especially in the enterprise world, they meant the traditional SOAP-over-HTTP-based
International travel is undertaken by large, and ever increasing, numbers of people
for professional, social, recreational and humanitarian purposes. More people
travel greater distances and at greater speed than ever before, and this upward
trend looks set to continue. Travellers are thus exposed to a variety of health risks
in unfamiliar environments. Most such risks, however, can be minimized by suitable
precautions taken before, during and after travel.
At heart, I have always been both a teacher and a student. I have been fortunate
to continue to meet a variety of people and have traveled to many interesting
places in both capacities over many years. One thing I have found to be true:
learning has kept me stimulated, curious, and optimistic about life and its
Learning takes many forms, but the most powerful is the learning we gain
from direct exposure to other people. Whether we know it or not, many of
those people to whom we have been exposed have been coaches.
Today’s society is fascinated by crime. Crime and deviance have
taken on a cultural significance they never previously had. As a
result, crime is a hot topic in the media and one that leads people to
be continually exposed to criminal events, portrayals of those who
commit them, and the suffering of victims. Most of the crime we
experience, we experience vicariously. But the bias in crime reporting
is such that it is easy to get the wrong idea about the reality of crime.
Air pollution is one of the most serious
environmental threats to urban populations
(Cohen 2005). Exposures vary among and within
urban areas, but all people living in cities are
exposed, and many are harmed, by current levels
of pollutants in many large cities. Infants, young
children, seniors and people who have lung
and heart conditions are especially affected, but
even young, healthy adults are not immune to
harm from poor air quality.
The luxury goods industry is unique in that it is an industry that relies strictly on marketing and promotion to
sell products to a specified group of people. It is also an industry that is well guarded and difficult to find any
information on. However, the luxury goods industry is very fascinating and the products themselves signify
prestige and status. Although a select few are able to afford luxury goods, the vast majority of people who are
exposed to advertisements for certain products generally have aspirations of being able to own these products
It was noted before that several synthetic copper chemicals are used in organic agriculture as
fungicides. Although small amounts of copper are essential for life, it is a toxic element at higher
levels. There have been reports of people committing suicide by ingesting it. Vineyard sprayers have
experienced liver disease from exposure to it. It is corrosive to the skin and eyes and is absorbed
through the skin. It causes reproductive problems in birds, hamsters and rats. It has been shown to
induce heart disease in the offspring of pregnant hamsters that were exposed to it.
In all three cities, there is likely to be an increase in
the number of persons exposed to flooding in 2050
under different climate scenarios compared to a situa-
tion without climate change. For instance, in Bangkok
in 2050, the number of persons affected (flooded
for more than 30 days) by a 1-in-30-year event will
rise sharply for both the low and high emission sce-
narios—by 47 percent and 75 percent respectively—
compared to those affected by floods in a situation
without climate change.