There are a lot of references of rickettsioses acquired by travellers and considered imported
diseases (McDonald et al., 1988; Bottieau et al. 2006; Freedman et al., 2006; Askling et al.
2009; Chen & Wilson, 2009; Jensenius et al., 2009; Stokes & Walters, 2009).
Nowadays ticks cause most travel-associated rickettsioses. Ticks are considered to be one of
the most important vectors of infectious diseases in the world, preceded only by
mosquitoes. Therefore, tick-borne rickettsioses are endemic all over the world (Hechemy et
The purpose of surveillance in the post/pandemic period is to provide information that
will enable timely epidemic or pandemic detection, inform health policy decisions and
influenza management strategies, and guide influenza vaccine development and
Car-sharing means that a number of persons share the use of one or more cars.
Use of a car is booked beforehand, the user paying a fee based on the distance
driven and the length of time the car was made use of.
Although this is similar in some ways to traditional car rental, it differs in the
possibility it provides of booking a car for short periods of time and in the rental
agreement being made for an extended period of time, rather than each time a car
is used. In addition, each household has its own set...
Infectious diseases have been known for thousands of years, although accurate
information on their etiology has only been available for about a century.
In the medical teachings of Hippocrates, the cause of infections occurring frequently
in a certain locality or during a certain period (epidemics)was sought
in “changes” in the air according to the theory of miasmas. This concept, still
reflected in terms such as “swamp fever” or “malaria,” was the predominant
academic opinion until the end of the 19th century, despite the fact that the
Dutch cloth merchant A.
The 2004 Climate Plan outlines a series of programs designed to cut 72 million tons of
carbon dioxide emissions annually, beyond the scope of France's commitments under
the Kyoto Protocol. The European Union's burden-sharing approach to the Kyoto
Protocol calls on France to freeze its greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels over the
2008-2012 period, an objective that government officials say will require annual
reductions of 54 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions.
The term relapsing fever describes two distinct diseases. Tick-borne
(endemic) relapsing fever (TBRF) is a zoonosis that is transmitted
principally from rodents to humans by the bite of various soft ticks. Louseborne
(epidemic) relapsing fever (LBRF) is a disease of humans that is
transmitted from one person to another by the body louse. Both diseases are
characterized by recurrent acute episodes of spirochetemia and fever
alternating with variable periods of remission.
This second application of the global burden of disease
framework permits an analysis of trends observed since the
first application. The intervening period was clearly one of slow
progress, impeded by the HIV/AIDS epidemic and setbacks in
Eastern Europe. The volume is appropriately cautious in draw-
ing inferences about disease-specific trends because of changes
in data sources and, in some instances, improvements in
approaches to measurement.
The World Bank and the Center for
International Comparisons at the University of Pennsylvania, USA. As the trend from 1990 to
2010 is estimated, the time reference of the data gathered starts from 1985, in order to cover
fully the period around 1990. Deaths due to AIDS were obtained from UNAIDS (unpublished
tables from the Global Report: UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2010.
Childhood obesity is a global epidemic and rising trends in overweight and obesity
are apparent in both developed and developing countries. Available estimates for
the period between the 1980s and 1990s show the prevalence of overweight and
obesity in children increased by a magnitude of two to ﬁve times in developed
countries (e.g. from 11% to over 30% in boys in Canada), and up to almost four
times in developing countries (e.g. from 4% to 14% in Brazil).