The present book is a collection of selected original research articles and reviews providing adequate and up-to-date information related to pesticides control, assessment, and toxicity. The first section covers a large spectrum of issues associated with the ecological, molecular, and biotechnological approaches to the understanding of the biological control, the mechanism of the biocontrol agents action, and the related effects.
Since the synthesis of DDT during 1874 several insecticide molecules have been
identified and synthesized globally for the control of insect pests, pathogens, microbes,
vectors of human and animal diseases, weeds and other obnoxious organisms.
Currently, 1.8 billion kgs of pesticides are used annually worldwide in the form of
herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. There are more than 1055 active ingredients
registered as pesticides till date implying that there is no best alternate for the
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Pesticide exposure, risk factors and health problems among cutflower farmers: a cross sectional study
Jinky Leilanie Del Prado-Lu
Researching this thesis with a view to: describe the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of farmer exposure to pesticides; determine disease model and describe some factors related to farmer health in cultivating tea; construction and appreciate of effect of interfere model on human health protection suitably for current conditions in Thai Nguyen.
The effects of pesticide contamination on the metabolism of marine mol-luscs are poorly documented. We investigated the response of a marine
bivalve, the Pacific oyster,Crassostrea gigas, using a suppression subtrac-tive hybridization method to identify up- and down-regulated genes after a
30-day exposure period to herbicides (a cocktail of atrazine, diuron and
isoproturon, and to the single herbicide glyphosate). A total of 137 unique
differentially expressed gene sequences was identified, as well as their asso-ciated physiological process....
More recently, a QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relantionship) investigation was
carried out on a series of nostoclide analogues presenting the general structure (43) to
correlate molecular descriptions with their in vitro biological activity (the ability to interfere
with ligh-driven reduction of ferrycianide by isolated spinach chloroplasts thylakoid
membranes). The results of this investigation suggested that the degree of inhibition
efficiency of this class of compounds is intimately associated with their polarity (Teixeira et
Agricultual chemicals include not only pesticides for protecting plants, such as insecticides, germicides, herbicides and rodenticides, but also fertilizers and growth regulating substances being used in agricultural production and horticulture. In poisoning cases with agricultural chemicals, the causative poisons are largely the pesticides. There are many cases, in which the poisoning due to exposure to an organophosphorus pesticide is obvious with clinical symptoms .
It is evident that insecticides have been used to boost food production to a considerable
extent and to control vectors of disease. However, these advantages that are of great
economic benefits sometimes come with disadvantages when subjected to critical
environmental and human health considerations. Many insecticides are newly synthesized
whose health and environmental implications are unknown.
Since the mid-1980s, asthma rates in the U.S. have skyrocketed to
epidemic levels, particularly in young children. In the U.S. alone,
around 16 million people suffer from asthma. Asthma is a serious
chronic disorder, and in some cases life-threatening disease, of the
lungs characterized by recurrent attacks of bronchial constriction,
which cause breathlessness, wheezing, and coughing. Researchers
have found that pesticide exposure can induce a poisoning effect
linked to asthma.
Despite evidence to the contrary, chemical industry critics of epidemiologic studies linking pesticides to major diseases argue that they
are of limited value because of their reliance on records and study participants’ memory, among other issues. In fact, the correlation
of patterns of chemical use with an effect is difficult to establish in epidemiology and therefore may underestimate hazard effects.
When a correlation is established it raises serious concern.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài:
Household exposure to pesticides and bladder exstrophy in a newborn baby boy: a case report and review of the literature
Moreover, during the past years, intensive and repeated applications of the
same active ingredients cause the selection for and development of herbicide resistance
(Devine & Shukla, 2000; Beckie, 2006; Gressel, 2009; Preston, 2004). Starting from 1960s,
hundreds of weed biotypes have been reported as surviving herbicide application (Heap,
Intensive efforts have thus been undertaken to discover new compounds with favorable
environmental and safety features to selectively control weeds. In this regard, the
photosynthetic system has been target aiming to find new weed killers.
Pesticide exposure to residues on surfaces, eggs and birds are minimal, representing little risk to
workers. Once treated, birds are seldom handled by workers until removed from the houses at the end of
a production cycle. Frequency of application also plays a role in reducing secondary exposure following
premise treatments. Poultry houses are often treated just prior to the introduction of a new flock. In the
case of broilers and young turkeys, premise treatments will occur at a minimum of every 7 to 8 weeks.
Very limited evidence was available to inform the following recommendations on
screening. No prospective studies have evaluated the impact of screening on survival, quality of
life, or morbidity from treatment for skin cancer nor are there data on the adverse effects of
screening for skin cancer. As experts in the treatment and epidemiology of skin cancer, the
guideline panel members were aware that some individuals are at increased risk for skin cancer
because of personal characteristics or history.
Risk assessment of chemical substances is an ever-developing discipline. Transparent and accurate
risk assessments are necessary for decision-makers to make wise risk management decisions. The
outcome of risk assessments may have enormous economical consequences, in addition to the
consequences for human health and the environment. Globalization is a fact, with huge possibilities
for economic and social prosperity. Food and consumer products are produced in one part of the
world and put on the market in another....
This book is intended as a guide to the selection or design of the
principal kinds of chemical process equipment by engineers in
school and industry. The level of treatment assumes an elementary
knowledge of unit operations and transport phenomena. Access to
the many design and reference books listed in Chapter 1 is desirable.
For coherence, brief reviews of pertinent theory are provided.
Emphasis is placed on shortcuts, rules of thumb, and data for
design by analogy, often as primary design processes but also for
quick evaluations of detailed work....
This study used biomarkers of internal dose, exposure and effect, which allowed setting the
pesticides levels in 132 biological samples. OC pesticides which were most frequently found
in biological samples were 4,4-DDE and endosulfan. It is important to point out that laborers
did not report the use of these pesticides in the tomato crop, so the presence of these is
explained by the environmental pollution and toxicokinetics inherent to this group of
The determination of enzyme AChE continues to be widely used to measure the exposure to
OF and C, however, interpretations of results are highly variable, since there are genetic and
physiological causes as well as associated pathologies, which can decrease the levels of this
enzyme (Varona et al, 2007).
For many years, interest in the prevention of diseases in children was concentrated
on improvement of the postnatal environment. However, since the major problems
of infectious diseases and nutrition were solved with the help of vaccinations and
better feeding regimes, it became clear that new approaches were needed to prevent
and treat the disorders and problems we are facing now - problems mainly arising in
Environmental toxins, including exposure to lead, pesticides, and other chemicals,
unquestionably affect fertility in men and women. Researchers have documented many
examples, the strongest cases involving industrial and occupational exposures. These usually
involve small numbers of people exposed to high levels of contamination.