Pesticide safety

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  • Consumer concerns on food safety and society awareness of chemical contaminants in the environment have increased in the past few years. As a consequence, more restrictions in the use of chemical products have been imposed at national and international levels. Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since after Second World War, with the discovery of some organic compounds with good insecticide or herbicide activity. At present, around 2.

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  • Food safety and foodborne diseases are topics of global concern. Food safety encompasses many areas, including pesticide and antibiotic residues, the presence of mycotoxins and foodborne pathogens, and all aspects of food production and preparation. Many issues associated with these topics are common to all countries. Decisions must be made by each nation to determine priority areas that should be addressed to ensure the health of its citizens.

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  • Risk assessment of chemical substances is an ever-developing discipline. Transparent and accurate risk assessments are necessary for decision-makers to make wise risk management decisions. The outcome of risk assessments may have enormous economical consequences, in addition to the consequences for human health and the environment. Globalization is a fact, with huge possibilities for economic and social prosperity. Food and consumer products are produced in one part of the world and put on the market in another....

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  • This book is intended as a guide to the selection or design of the principal kinds of chemical process equipment by engineers in school and industry. The level of treatment assumes an elementary knowledge of unit operations and transport phenomena. Access to the many design and reference books listed in Chapter 1 is desirable. For coherence, brief reviews of pertinent theory are provided. Emphasis is placed on shortcuts, rules of thumb, and data for design by analogy, often as primary design processes but also for quick evaluations of detailed work....

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  • The editor has been involved with the safety assessment of proteins used in food production for more than 20 years. During that time, I have answered many questions regarding the safety of proteins developed by Monsanto. Some of the questions were asked by those who were familiar with the safety assessment of small-molecularweight chemicals (pesticides and food additives).

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  • To prepare the samples of different horizontal layers of bamboo, bottom portion of three year old bamboo was used. The epidermis of the strips was first removed with a fine blade. The epidermis was kept for chemical analysis and the rest of the strips were divided evenly based on volume into inner, middle and outer layers along the radial direction by a fine blade. The grinding process was the same as above described. All tests were conducted under the standards of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) except for alcohol-toluene solubility of bamboo. There was...

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  • APTER 6 Analysis of Key Topics-Environmental 6.1 IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN HEALTH Significance Under provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has established an enforceable maximum contaminant level (MCL) allowed in drinking water for certain pesticides with past or present use in the United States (Table 6.1). The MCLs are health-based standards and are results of chronic toxicity tests conducted with animals.

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  • Moreover, during the past years, intensive and repeated applications of the same active ingredients cause the selection for and development of herbicide resistance (Devine & Shukla, 2000; Beckie, 2006; Gressel, 2009; Preston, 2004). Starting from 1960s, hundreds of weed biotypes have been reported as surviving herbicide application (Heap, 2011). Intensive efforts have thus been undertaken to discover new compounds with favorable environmental and safety features to selectively control weeds. In this regard, the photosynthetic system has been target aiming to find new weed killers.

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  • Introduction - Regulatory Aspects All pesticides sold or distributed in the United States (US) must be registered with the EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) for the intended uses and must have safety data to show that they can be used without posing unreasonable risks to humans and the environment. Ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) is classified as an organophosphate pesticide.

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  • The main objective of the project is to arrange the citrus industry in Vietnam with world standards manufacturing practices and opportunities for the export market. Through sustainable integrated pest management (IPM) associated with the principles of good agricultural practice (GAP) for both economic interests and the environment, and will enable citrus growers in Vietnam leader in production in Asia-Pacific region.

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  • OPP’s regulatory process is designed to ensure the safe use of pesticides when they are applied according to label directions. Any use not according to the label is a violation of federal law and may endanger children, adults, or the environment. OPP works closely with EPA’s Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA), EPA regional offices, and states/tribes to investigate misuse of pesticides that results in adverse effects to children, and assist in development and implementation of timely enforcement actions.

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  • With this label the use of agro-chemicals is regulated and controlled and the residues on the products have to be below a specific level that is safe for con- sumers. The second label is “Pesticide-Safe Vegetable” which is assigned to retailers of agricul- tural products who conduct tests for toxic substances before selling the products. These products are from production systems using agro-chemicals, but the residues have to be within the defined levels.

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  • One of the most popular organic pesticides, neem, is toxic to non-target species including crustaceans and tadpoles. Neem has been shown to cause the brain disease toxic encephalopathy in children. In mice, it causes chromosomal abnormalities in bone marrow cells and damages the DNA of sperm . Are there any other problems with organic pesticides? We really do not know simply because they are not regulated like the “synthetic” ones.

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  • In Mekong delta, mangrove forest distributes along the coastline of 700 km and it is a homeland for mud crab in tropical areas. The mud crab becomes potential to be alternative species from failed shrimp farming. Particularly, mud crab hatchery has been introduced and operated recently at Bac lieu, Tra vinh, Soc Trang, Ben Tre, Kien giang and Ca mau provinces. However, the survival from zoea stage to crablet stage 1 is low at approximately 5%. In addition, like shrimp rearing, the mud crab hatchery is using antibiotic as major treatment to prevent bacteria and fungi.

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