Consumer concerns on food safety and society awareness of chemical contaminants
in the environment have increased in the past few years. As a consequence, more
restrictions in the use of chemical products have been imposed at national and
Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of
cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since after Second World War, with
the discovery of some organic compounds with good insecticide or herbicide
activity. At present, around 2.
Food safety and foodborne diseases are topics of global concern. Food safety
encompasses many areas, including pesticide and antibiotic residues, the presence
of mycotoxins and foodborne pathogens, and all aspects of food production
and preparation. Many issues associated with these topics are common to all
countries. Decisions must be made by each nation to determine priority areas
that should be addressed to ensure the health of its citizens.
Risk assessment of chemical substances is an ever-developing discipline. Transparent and accurate
risk assessments are necessary for decision-makers to make wise risk management decisions. The
outcome of risk assessments may have enormous economical consequences, in addition to the
consequences for human health and the environment. Globalization is a fact, with huge possibilities
for economic and social prosperity. Food and consumer products are produced in one part of the
world and put on the market in another....
This book is intended as a guide to the selection or design of the
principal kinds of chemical process equipment by engineers in
school and industry. The level of treatment assumes an elementary
knowledge of unit operations and transport phenomena. Access to
the many design and reference books listed in Chapter 1 is desirable.
For coherence, brief reviews of pertinent theory are provided.
Emphasis is placed on shortcuts, rules of thumb, and data for
design by analogy, often as primary design processes but also for
quick evaluations of detailed work....
The editor has been involved with the safety assessment of proteins used in food production
for more than 20 years. During that time, I have answered many questions
regarding the safety of proteins developed by Monsanto. Some of the questions were
asked by those who were familiar with the safety assessment of small-molecularweight
chemicals (pesticides and food additives).
To prepare the samples of different horizontal layers of bamboo, bottom portion
of three year old bamboo was used. The epidermis of the strips was first removed with a
fine blade. The epidermis was kept for chemical analysis and the rest of the strips were
divided evenly based on volume into inner, middle and outer layers along the radial
direction by a fine blade. The grinding process was the same as above described.
All tests were conducted under the standards of American Society for Testing
and Materials (ASTM) except for alcohol-toluene solubility of bamboo. There was...
Analysis of Key Topics-Environmental
6.1 IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN HEALTH
Under provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has established an enforceable maximum contaminant level (MCL) allowed in drinking water for certain pesticides with past or present use in the United States (Table 6.1). The MCLs are health-based standards and are results of chronic toxicity tests conducted with animals.
Moreover, during the past years, intensive and repeated applications of the
same active ingredients cause the selection for and development of herbicide resistance
(Devine & Shukla, 2000; Beckie, 2006; Gressel, 2009; Preston, 2004). Starting from 1960s,
hundreds of weed biotypes have been reported as surviving herbicide application (Heap,
Intensive efforts have thus been undertaken to discover new compounds with favorable
environmental and safety features to selectively control weeds. In this regard, the
photosynthetic system has been target aiming to find new weed killers.
Introduction - Regulatory Aspects All pesticides sold or distributed in the United States (US) must be registered with the EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) for the intended uses and must have safety data to show that they can be used without posing unreasonable risks to humans and the environment. Ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) is classified as an organophosphate pesticide.
The main objective of the project is to arrange the citrus industry in Vietnam with world standards
manufacturing practices and opportunities for the export market. Through sustainable integrated
pest management (IPM) associated with the principles of good agricultural practice (GAP) for both
economic interests and the environment, and will enable citrus growers in Vietnam
leader in production in Asia-Pacific region.
In Mekong delta, mangrove forest distributes along the coastline of 700 km and it is a homeland for mud crab in tropical areas. The mud crab becomes potential to be alternative species from failed shrimp farming. Particularly, mud crab hatchery has been introduced and operated recently at Bac lieu, Tra vinh, Soc Trang, Ben Tre, Kien giang and Ca mau provinces. However, the survival from zoea stage to crablet stage 1 is low at approximately 5%. In addition, like shrimp rearing, the mud crab hatchery is using antibiotic as major treatment to prevent bacteria and fungi.
OPP’s regulatory process is designed to ensure the safe use of pesticides when they are
applied according to label directions. Any use not according to the label is a violation of
federal law and may endanger children, adults, or the environment. OPP works closely with
EPA’s Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA), EPA regional offices, and
states/tribes to investigate misuse of pesticides that results in adverse effects to children,
and assist in development and implementation of timely enforcement actions.
With this label the use of agro-chemicals is regulated and
controlled and the residues on the products have to be below a specific level that is safe for con-
sumers. The second label is “Pesticide-Safe Vegetable” which is assigned to retailers of agricul-
tural products who conduct tests for toxic substances before selling the products. These products
are from production systems using agro-chemicals, but the residues have to be within the defined
One of the most popular organic pesticides, neem, is toxic to non-target species including
crustaceans and tadpoles. Neem has been shown to cause the brain disease toxic encephalopathy in
children. In mice, it causes chromosomal abnormalities in bone marrow cells and damages the DNA
of sperm .
Are there any other problems with organic pesticides? We really do not know simply because they
are not regulated like the “synthetic” ones.