Xem 1-20 trên 54 kết quả Pesticide toxicity
  • Since the synthesis of DDT during 1874 several insecticide molecules have been identified and synthesized globally for the control of insect pests, pathogens, microbes, vectors of human and animal diseases, weeds and other obnoxious organisms. Currently, 1.8 billion kgs of pesticides are used annually worldwide in the form of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. There are more than 1055 active ingredients registered as pesticides till date implying that there is no best alternate for the chemical pesticide.

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  • Introduction: Among many carbamate pesticides commercially available in Japan, those with relatively high toxicities are shown in Table 4.1 [1]. Carbamate pesticides are generally classified into N-methylcarbamate insecticides and N-allylcarbamate herbicides in view of their chemical structures and biological actions. The number of fatalities due to poisoning by carbamate pesticides is 50–100 every year in Japan; many of them are poisoned by methomyl [2].

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  • Introduction: Organophosphorus pesticides (organophosphate pesticides) are being most widely used as insecticides, and thus cause poisoning cases frequently. The organophosphorus pesticides at the early stage, such as parathion and TEPP, had powerful insecticidal effects and high toxicity for both humans and beasts, and caused poisoning accidents during spraying. Although many less toxic organophosphorus pesticides were then developed, the resistance to the pesticides was acquired by insects during their repeated use, resulting in less effectiveness of the pesticides.

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  • Soil contamination has severely increased over the last decades, mainly due to petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead and other heavy metals from industrial wastes and human activities. The critical point regarding contaminated soil monitoring is the intrinsic difficulty in defining fixed monitoring variables and indicators as the establishment of any a priori criterion and threshold for soil quality can be still considered subjective.

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  • Cashew is an important crop in Vietnam, and the government has assigned the development as a national priority gia.Nang cashew productivity has increased since 2002, but the widespread use of drugs pesticides has caused health problems for farmers, animals and the environment. Article IPM program using ants as a key component in the development of Charles Darwin University (CDU) does not use toxic pesticides, but high-yield results. This project is using the CDU of IPM to develop and implement an IPM program that will work in conditions of Vietnam....

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  • Cashew is an important crop in Vietnam, and the government has assigned the development as a national priority gia.Nang cashew productivity has been increased since 2002, but the widespread use pesticides has caused health problems for farmers, animals and the environment. Article IPM program using ants as a key component in the development of Charles Darwin University (CDU) does not use toxic pesticides, but high-yield results. This project is using the CDU of IPM to develop and implement an IPM program that will work in conditions of Vietnam....

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  • Cashew is an important crop in Vietnam, and the government has assigned the development as a national priority gia.Nang cashew productivity has increased since 2002, but the widespread use of drugs pesticides has caused health problems for farmers, animals and the environment. Article IPM program using ants as a key component in the development of Charles Darwin University (CDU) does not use toxic pesticides, but high-yield results. This project is using the CDU of IPM to develop and implement an IPM program that will work in conditions of Vietnam.

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  • It is possible to anticipate that promising inhibitors of photosynthesis will certainly be found by exploring the natural product pool. From nature, it is also possible that more active compounds with low toxicity and improved selectivity will be found. Promising photosynthetic inhibitors has also been revealed by the synthetic studies. One important challenge in the field of weed management is related to selectivity. In other words, chemicals should exert their action only on weeds.

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  • The present book is a collection of selected original research articles and reviews providing adequate and up-to-date information related to pesticides control, assessment, and toxicity. The first section covers a large spectrum of issues associated with the ecological, molecular, and biotechnological approaches to the understanding of the biological control, the mechanism of the biocontrol agents action, and the related effects.

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  • There is currently no independent authoritative statement on the nature and importance of differences in content of nutrients and other nutritionally relevant substances (nutrients and other substances) in organically and conventionally produced foodstuffs. This systematic review of the available published literature was designed to seek to determine the size and relevance to health of any differences in content of nutrients and other substances in organically and conventionally produced crops and livestock products.

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  • APTER 6 Analysis of Key Topics-Environmental 6.1 IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN HEALTH Significance Under provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has established an enforceable maximum contaminant level (MCL) allowed in drinking water for certain pesticides with past or present use in the United States (Table 6.1). The MCLs are health-based standards and are results of chronic toxicity tests conducted with animals.

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  • Enormous increases in agricultural productivity can properly be associated with the use of chemicals. This statement applies equally to crop production through the use offertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides, as to livestock production and the associated use of drugs, steroids, and other growth accelerators. There is, however, a dark side to this picture and it is important to balance the benefits which flow from the use of agricultural chemicals against their environmental impacts, which sometimes are seriously disadvantageous.

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  • Despite the tremendous progress that has been achieved in water pollution, almost 40% of the U.S. waters that have been assessed by states do not meet water quality goals. About 20,000 water bodies are impacted by siltation, nutrients, bacteria, oxygen depletion substances, metals, habitat alterations, pesticides, and toxic organic chemicals. With pollution from point sources being dramatically reduced, nonpoint source pollution is the major cause of most water that does not meet water quality goals.

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  • Since the Second World War, and especially since the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring in 1962, there has been growing concern about contamination of the environment by “man-made” chemicals. These chemicals may be present in industrial and municipal effluents, in consumer or commercial products, in mine tailings, in petroleum products, and in gaseous emissions. Some chemicals such as pesticides may be specifically designed to kill biota present in natural or agricultural ecosystems. They may be organic, inorganic, metallic, or radioactive in nature.

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  • Human activities may seriously affect the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Pathogen organisms, nutrients, heavy metals, toxic elements, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and various other organic micropollutants enter to aquatic environment through a range of point and diffuse sources. The presence of these compounds has adverse impacts on aquatic biota. It is well recognised that the distribution and the abundance of various species in aquatic systems are directly related to the water quality and hydrological conditions....

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  • The past century has seen a tremendous expansion in the number of synthetic chemicals employed by humankind as materials, drugs, preservatives for foods and other products, pesticides, cleaning agents, and even weapons of war. An estimated 64,000 chemicals are currently in use commercially, with 5 billion tons being produced annually in the world. Some 4000 chemicals are used as medicinals and at least 1200 more as household products. An estimated 700 new chemicals are synthesized each year.

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  • Pyrethroids và thực vật khác 2.1 Lớp cái nhìn tổng quan và bối cảnh mô tả chung Pyrethroids và thuốc trừ sâu thực vật khác được nhóm lại với nhau không phải bởi vì họ có đặc tính tương tự như độc tính như organophosphates hoặc carbamate, nhưng vì tất cả họ đều có nguồn gốc sinh học. Thuốc trừ sâu có thể được chiết xuất từ tự nhiên vật liệu, hoặc họ có thể được tổng hợp trong phòng thí nghiệm thương mại.

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  • Metabolism of pesticides denotes that any foreign substance that enters in the living system and how it will be changed into non-toxic and thrown out due to the enzymatic activity and other mode of action. When chemical toxins applied to nonliving substance (soil and water) that will lose the toxic principles by degradation process due to the action of biotic and abiotic factors. The time to nullify the toxicity is of prime importance and it vary depending upon the chemical molecule and environmental conditions.

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  • Thio-và dithiocarbamates 4.1. Tổng quan về lớp và bối cảnh mô tả chung Thio-và dithiocarbamates từng có một lớp con đặc biệt của carbamate. Như tên lớp học bao hàm sự, thiocarbamates có một nguyên tử lưu huỳnh thay thế cho một nguyên tử oxy; dithiocarbamates, có hai nguyên tử oxy thay thế bằng lưu huỳnh. Các cấu trúc chung của các thiocarbamates và dithiocarbamates được minh họa trong Hình 4.1, Bảng 4.1 liệt kê các thiocarbamate khác nhau và các hợp chất dithiocarbamate.

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  • Though alternative methods of controlling insects, rodents, insect pests, pathogens, microbes and weeds have been developed, pesticides could not be replaced. The prosperous role of pesticides in the management of insect pests and diseases is indisputable. However, its nature of non selective toxicity towards other organisms and deposition in the environment warrants the legislation of usage. Pesticide use raises a number of environmental concerns.

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