Many mathematical tools can be used to analyze vibrational systems. One of the first mathemat-
ical tools a neophyte engineer learns is calculus. The basics of limits, differentiation, and
integration permeate all of engineering mathematics. This chapter offers a cursory review of
these topics and uses the mathematics of vibrations to demonstrate how the concepts operate.
For more specific information on all these topics, consult relevant sections of this Handbook.
Tourism is big business and getting bigger. In the 20 years from1980 to 2000
global tourism receipts increased at an annual rate of nearly 8 per cent,
much faster than the rate of world economic growth of around 3 per cent.
In 2000, income from tourism combined with passenger transport totaled
more than $575 billion, making this sector the world number one export
earner, ahead of automotive production, chemicals, petroleum and food
(UNEP web site1).
Petroleum taxation is the universal instrument through which governments seek to
determine the crucial balance between the ﬁnancial interests of the oil companies and
the owners of the resource. This book addresses how governments have and continue
to approach this problem, the impacts of diﬀerent policy choices and how these are
being adapted to changing business conditions. Carole Nakhle presents the reader
with an illuminating and robust analysis of the entire taxation story, from the basic
theoretical considerations through to advanced computations applied to various tax
Saad Ibrahim has over 30 years of diversified experience in the Petroleum Industry in Western Canada and internationally, including projects in Libya, Yemen, Kazakstan, Venezuela and Argentina, with special expertise in reservoir engineering with emphasis on field development planning, evaluation of depletion strategies and production optimization of a wide spectrum of oil and gas fields.
In the early years of oil drilling and production, wells were primarily drilled on land to moder-
ate depths and with relatively minor horizontal offsets, and an empirical understanding of the
impact of geological forces and Earth material properties on required drilling practice was de-
veloped by region. Successful practices were defined by trial and (sometimes costly and
There are few areas of economic policy- making in which the returns to good decisions
are so high – and the punishment of bad decisions so cruel – as in the management of
natural resource wealth. Rich endowments of oil, gas and minerals have set some coun-
tries on courses of sustained and robust prosperity; but they have left others riddled with
corruption and persistent poverty, with little of lasting value to show for squandered
wealth. And amongst the most important of these decisions are those relating to the tax
treatment of oil, gas and minerals....
An overall project schedule is required to determine complete project timescale,
resource requirements and costs. A more detailed schedule is required to manage
and control the project. This more detailed schedule is developed progressively
through the project by producing a schedule for the next stage during Project
Initiation and towards the end of subsequent project stages.
The overall project schedule provides a overview of the activities in the stage.
These activities need to be further defined to the point where all necessary tasks
have been identified.
industrialisation strategies adopted and economic policies followed have shown
great differences before and after 1980. An import substitution policy had been
implemented until 1980. However, after 1980, significant progress has been made
towards establishing the principles and fundamentals of a market economy through
the introduction of export-oriented industrialisation.
These reforms made significant contribution to the dynamism of the private sector
and improved the adaptability of Turkish economy to internal and external impacts.
These impacts are likely to increase in the future as international oil prices rise, U.S. oil
production declines, and petroleum and vehicle production become more automated.
Although exact impacts are uncertain and impossible to predict with precision, between
2010 and 2020 a million dollars shifted from fuel to general consumer expenditures is
likely to generate at least six jobs, and after 2020 at least eight jobs.
Both high import payments for petroleum motor fuels and concerns regarding emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) are motivating interest in possible fuel substitutes. Petroleum products derived from conventional crude oil constitute more than 50 percent of end-use energy deliveries in the United States and more than 95 percent
This guide is a tool designed to help us project the values and vision behind the Emarat brand. It is important that it is followed carefully so that we can ensure a consistent style and quality of presentation. Everything we do and produce needs to reflect Emarat clearly and consistently.
Four values – or types of behaviour – are at the heart of the Emarat brand. Our brand personality is based on service that is: Expert, Responsible, Active and Strong.
Following World War II, the high quality, technologically advanced products of the United States dominated world markets. With the oil shock of the 1970s, however, many of the economic advantages associated with cheap petroleum were lost and the recovered economies of Europe and Asia emerged as strong competitors in many product areas. The innovative technologies of the US could no longer insulate industries from the customer oriented approaches of European and Asian producers.
The petrochemical industry is an important constituent in our pursuit of economic growth, employment generation and basic needs. It is a huge field that encompasses many commercial chemicals and polymers. This book is designed to help the reader, particularly students and researchers of petroleum science and engineering, understand the mechanics and techniques.
Road trafﬁc is one of the major consumers of energy, particularly in western industrialized countries, and globally it exhibits the highest growth rate in energy consumption of all sectors. In the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, more than 33% of the total ﬁnal energy consumption goes into the transportation sector, amounting to more than 11% of the world’s total primary energy consumed.
Soil reactivity with chemical oxidants is also important when considering the
costs of the use of chemical oxidation. Excessive loss of a chemical oxidant that is
reacting with organics in soil, instead of reacting with the contaminants, may
preclude the use of the technology as an economically viable approach to site
remediation. Different chemical oxidation technologies are most appropriate for
particular hydrogeologic conditions. For example, Fenton’s Reagant may not be
ideal for groundwater with high concentrations of carbonate.
Hydraulic fracturing is an industrial process used to extract fossil fuel reserves that
lie deep underground. With the introduction of horizontal drilling, new commercial sources
of energy have become available. Wells are drilled and injected with large quantities of water
mixed with specially selected chemicals at high pressures that allow petroleum reserves to
flow to the surface. While the increased economic activities and the outputs of domestic energy
are welcomed, there is growing concern over negative environmental impacts from horizontal
drilling in shale formations.
The most straightforward approach to valuing
mineral resources relies on market transaction
prices. This is the standard approach used across
the national economic accounts for capital assets.
When resources of petroleum, copper, gold, and
other minerals are sold, the value of the transac-
tion provides a basis for calculating the market
value of the mineral component of the asset.
A close look at the transaction-prices approach
reveals, however, a number of diYculties that
need to be resolved.
The impacts of fuel consumption by light-duty vehicles
are profound, influencing economic prosperity, national
and Earth’s environment. Increasing energy efficiency
has been a continuing and central objective for automobile
manufacturers and regulators pursuing objectives that
range from reducing vehicle operating costs and improving
performance to reducing dependence on petroleum and
limiting greenhouse gas emissions.
Renewable energy technologies—including solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, and
hydropower—are in many ways attractive to policy makers who must address these market
disruptions and the economic and social strife they can create. Renewable energy
technologies are advantageous because they are immune to price shocks from fuel supply
constraints and cartel pricing. Furthermore, renewable energy resources are much more
environmentally benign than their conventional counterparts, such as coal, nuclear, and