Petroleum fuels manufacturing

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  • Petroleum products are everywhere around us. They appear in visible forms, such as gasoline, diesel, kerosene, and aircraft fuels, and in less visible forms over the entire spectrum of industry, such as automobile lubricants, greases, carbon black for truck tires, bitumen for road building, the waterproofing in house roofs, feedstock for petrochemicals, synthetic fibers, and plastics. Petroleum feedstock is used in the manufacture of white mineral oils in eye ointment, hair oils, cosmetics, petroleum solvents, and pest control sprays....

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  • In the next instant, a frightening figure surged from beneath the water. Formed of the rats’ bones, the creature stood eight feet tall, built square and broad-chested as an ape. It stood on bowed legs that were whitely visible through the murky water. Instead of two arms, the bone creature possessed four, all longer than the legs. When it closed its hands, horns formed of ribs and rats’ teeth stuck out of the creature’s fists, rendering them into morningstars for all intents and purposes. The horns looked sharp-edged, constructed for slashing as well as stabbing.

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  • This manual implements Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 32-10, Installations and Facilities, by providing guidance for base and command liquid fuels maintenance (LFM) personnel with guide procedures for field maintenance of permanently installed Air Force-owned, -leased, or -controlled petroleum storage and dispensing systems. It also supplements detailed manufacturers’ instructions on specific equipment and applies to all Air Force systems and activities for which the civil engineer (CE) has maintenance responsibility....

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  • The impacts of fuel consumption by light-duty vehicles are profound, influencing economic prosperity, national security, and Earth’s environment. Increasing energy efficiency has been a continuing and central objective for automobile manufacturers and regulators pursuing objectives that range from reducing vehicle operating costs and improving performance to reducing dependence on petroleum and limiting greenhouse gas emissions.

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  • The following sections provide an overview of the technical and qualitative characteristics of a wide range of alternative fuels that can replace coal in cement kilns. These fuels include agricultural and non-agricultural biomass, chemical and hazardous wastes, petroleum-based wastes, and miscellaneous waste fuels. Each of these alternatives are described in detail, including a discussion of average substitution rates, energy and water content of the fuels, carbon dioxide emissions factors, and change in carbon emissions per ton1 of coal replacement.

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  • MAJOR REFINERY PRODUCTS 1. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG): which consists principally of propane and butane, is used as domestic fuel and is an intermediate material in the manufacture of petrochemicals. 2. Solvents: These include benzene, toluene and xylene. 3. Gasoline: is the most important refinery product with boiling ranges from ambient temperatures to about 200°C. The important qualities for gasoline are octane number, volatility, sulfur content and vapor pressure.

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  • CHAPTER 4 6 GASEOUS FUELS Richard J. Reed North American Manufacturing Company Cleveland, Ohio 46.1 46.2 INTRODUCTION NATURAL GAS 46.2.1 Uses and Distribution 46.2.2 Environmental Impact 46.2.3 Sources, Supply, and Storage 46.2.4 Types and Composition 46.2.5 Properties 46.2.6 Calorific Value or Heating Value 1505 1505 1505 1505 1507 1507 1507 46.3 1507 46.2.7 46.2.8 46.2.9 46.2.10 46.2.11 46.2.12 Net Heating Value Flame Stability Gas Gravity Wobbe Index Flame Temperature Minimum Ignition Temperature 46.2.

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  • CHAPTER 4 7 LIQUID FOSSIL FUELS FROM PETROLEUM Richard J. Reed North American Manufacturing Company Cleveland, Ohio 47.1 47.2 INTRODUCTION 1 1 5 7 47.3 SHALE OILS 1528 FUEL OILS 1 1 5 7 47.4 47.2.1 Kerosene 1519 47.2.2 Aviation Turbine Fuels 1525 47.5 47.2.3 Diesel Fuels 1 2 5 6 47.2.4 Summary 1 2 5 8 OILS FROM TAR &ANDS 1 2 5 8 OIL-WATER EMULSIONS 1 2 5 8 47.1 INTRODUCTION The major source of liquid fuels is crude petroleum; other sources are shale and tar sands. Synthetic hydrocarbon fuels—gasoline and methanol—can be made from coal and natural gas.

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