Petroleum products industry

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  • Petroleum products are everywhere around us. They appear in visible forms, such as gasoline, diesel, kerosene, and aircraft fuels, and in less visible forms over the entire spectrum of industry, such as automobile lubricants, greases, carbon black for truck tires, bitumen for road building, the waterproofing in house roofs, feedstock for petrochemicals, synthetic fibers, and plastics. Petroleum feedstock is used in the manufacture of white mineral oils in eye ointment, hair oils, cosmetics, petroleum solvents, and pest control sprays....

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  • References to oil and gas production handbook, author Virgil B. Guthrie. Hopefully documents provide useful knowledge for engineering and technology students specializing in chemical industry - oil and gas.

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  • Th e ste el industry is one of man y major wo rl d industries exte nsively restructured in th is era of globalizatio n. The Global Restructuring of the Steel Indu stry explains how and why th e steel ind ustry has shifted from advanced ca pita list countries to late ind ustria lizing countries. Drawing upon case studies of th e steel industr y in th e US, Japan, South Korea, Brazil and India, Anthony P.D'Costa examines the relationship between industri al cha nge and institutional responses to techn ological diffusion....

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  • industrialisation strategies adopted and economic policies followed have shown great differences before and after 1980. An import substitution policy had been implemented until 1980. However, after 1980, significant progress has been made towards establishing the principles and fundamentals of a market economy through the introduction of export-oriented industrialisation. These reforms made significant contribution to the dynamism of the private sector and improved the adaptability of Turkish economy to internal and external impacts.

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  • Sewage sludge as an uncalled for product of wastewater treatment poses the challenge to society of disposing of it, but at the same time gives us the opportunity of beneficial use by closing the cycle of nutrients: sludge derived from agricultural activity must return to soil if a sustainable and ecologically sound management of these materials is desirable (SEQUI et al. 2000). At present the major ways of disposing of sewage sludges are deposition, landfill and incineration, only part of the sludges are used in agriculture. ...

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  • Petroleum-based industrial products have gradually replaced products derived from biological materials. However, biologically based products are making a comeback--because of a threefold increase in farm productivity and new technologies. Biobased Industrial Products envisions a biobased industrial future, where starch will be used to make biopolymers and vegetable oils will become a routine component in lubricants and detergents.

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  • In 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technology (OIT) established a group of seven industries designated as Industries of the Future (IOF). These industries were selected for their high energy use and large waste generation. The original IOF included the aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metalcasting, petroleum refining, and steel industries. Each industry was asked to provide a future vision and a road map detailing the research required to realize its vision.

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  • Saad Ibrahim has over 30 years of diversified experience in the Petroleum Industry in Western Canada and internationally, including projects in Libya, Yemen, Kazakstan, Venezuela and Argentina, with special expertise in reservoir engineering with emphasis on field development planning, evaluation of depletion strategies and production optimization of a wide spectrum of oil and gas fields.

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  • Gas chromatography has been and it still is, one of the key tools in analytical techniques in many of the advanced research carried out over the globe. This technique has contributed tremendously and was once the main technique in the analysis of specific compounds like volatile compounds, certain pesticides, pharmaceuticals and petroleum products. The advance of this technique has resulted in several tandem instruments with application of other techniques to enhance the results obtained by gas chromatography.

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  • Since the Second World War, and especially since the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring in 1962, there has been growing concern about contamination of the environment by “man-made” chemicals. These chemicals may be present in industrial and municipal effluents, in consumer or commercial products, in mine tailings, in petroleum products, and in gaseous emissions. Some chemicals such as pesticides may be specifically designed to kill biota present in natural or agricultural ecosystems. They may be organic, inorganic, metallic, or radioactive in nature.

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  • Hydrogen and synthesis gas (syngas) are indispensable in chemical, oil, and energy industries. They are important building blocks and serve as feedstocks for the production of chemicals such as ammonia and methanol. Hydrogen is used in petroleum refi neries to produce clean transportation fuels, and its consumption is expected to increase dramatically in the near future as refi ners need to process increasingly heavier and sour crudes.

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  • Chapter 3 INHALATION HAZARDS IN REFINERIES INTRODUCTION Operations of the petroleum industry can logically be divided into production, refining, and marketing. Production includes locating and drilling oil wells, pumping and pretreating the crude oil, recovering gas condensate, and shipping these raw products to the refinery or, in the case of gas, to commercial sales outlets. Refining, which extends to the conversion of crude to a finished salable product, includes oil refining and the manufacture of various chemicals derived from petroleum.

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  • Major oil spills attract the attention of the public and the media. In recent years, this attention has created a global awareness of the risks of oil spills and the damage they do to the environment. However, oil is a necessity in our industrial society, and a major sustainer of our lifestyle. Most of the energy used in Canada and the United States is for transportation that runs on oil and petroleum products. According to trends in energy usage, this is not likely to decrease much in the future.

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  • The use of ethanol for fuel was widespread in Europe and the United States until the early 1900s (Illinois Corn Growers’ Association/Illinois Corn Marketing Board). Because it became more expensive to produce than petroleum-based fuel, especially after World War II, ethanol’s potential was largely ignored until the Arab oil embargo of the 1970s. One response to the embargo was increased use of the fuel extender “gasohol ” (or E-10), a mixture of one part ethanol made from corn mixed with nine parts gasoline.

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  • Just as the chemical and physical properties of petroleum have offered challenges in selecting and designing optimal upgrading schemes, they also introduce challenges when determining the effects of petroleum and its product on the environment. In particular, predicting the fate of the polynuclear aromatic systems, the heteroatom systems (principally, compounds containing nitrogen and sulfur), and the metal-containing systems (principally, compounds of vanadium, nickel, and iron) in the feedstocks is the subject of many studies and migration models....

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  • The process used to reach this defining point included the coordination of concept development, collection of expert testimony, organization of multi- disciplinary workshops, listening sessions, priority ranking exercises, and team- based action planning. A unique aspect of the process has been the breadth of professional experts involved, from growers to chemists, to biotechnologists, to petroleum-derived material scientists, to marketers of renewable and non- renewable products. Further details are given in the appendices....

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  • Under the reference case scenario, CEF projects that the pulp and paper industry’s energy consumption will continue to be dominated by renewable fuels (primarily biomass) and natural gas, though renewable energy sources will grow at the expense of natural gas, coal, and petroleum as the industry continues to reduce its demand for purchased fuels. Economic energy intensity (energy consumption per dollar value of output) is expected to decrease at the rate of 0.

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  • Following World War II, the high quality, technologically advanced products of the United States dominated world markets. With the oil shock of the 1970s, however, many of the economic advantages associated with cheap petroleum were lost and the recovered economies of Europe and Asia emerged as strong competitors in many product areas. The innovative technologies of the US could no longer insulate industries from the customer oriented approaches of European and Asian producers.

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  • The chemical process industries (CPI), petroleum and allied industries apply physical as well as chemical methods to the conversion of raw feedstock materials into salable products. Because of the diversity of products, process conditions and requirements, equipment design is often unique, or case specific. The prime requirement of any piece of equipment is that it performs the function for which it was designed under the intended process operating conditions, and do so in a continuous and reliable manner.

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  • CHEMICAL ENGINEERING occupies a special place among scientific and engineering disciplines. It is an engineering discipline with deep roots in the world of atoms, molecules, and molecular transformations. The principles and approaches that make up chemical engineering have a long and rich history of contributions to the nation's technological needs. Chemical engineers play a key role in industries as varied as petroleum, food, artificial fibers, petrochemicals, plastics, ceramics, primary metals, glass, and specialty chemicals.

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