Pharmaceutical sector

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

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  • Despite expectations born a decade ago, there are only a few successes in stratified medicine up to now and its implementation proves to be challenging in many aspects. Numerous factors are considered in making decisions. Indeed the pharmaceutical sector becomes increasingly aware of the potential benefits of stratified medicine but it seems inhibited by uncertainties.

    pdf12p quynho77 14-11-2012 15 1   Download

  • industrialisation strategies adopted and economic policies followed have shown great differences before and after 1980. An import substitution policy had been implemented until 1980. However, after 1980, significant progress has been made towards establishing the principles and fundamentals of a market economy through the introduction of export-oriented industrialisation. These reforms made significant contribution to the dynamism of the private sector and improved the adaptability of Turkish economy to internal and external impacts.

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  • The military health system, as well as the private health care sector, has experienced rapid growth in pharmaceutical expenditures. In 2002 alone, the Department of Defense spent about $3 billion on outpatient pharmacy benefits. As part of an effort to redesign the TRICARE pharmacy benefit to save costs, the Department

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  • (BQ) Ebook Biochemistry of Plant Secondary Metabolism is designed for use by advanced students, researchers and profes-sionals in plant biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, genetics, agricul-ture and pharmacy working in the academic and industrial sectors, including the pesticide and pharmaceutical industries.

    pdf481p ductienthaiha 14-03-2015 20 11   Download

  • While important progress on the MDGs has been made, it has been uneven between and within countries. Gender disparities remain manifested in many sectors with progress differing by region and country. The growing number and diversity of actors, approaches and flows in development cooperation in recent years have also significantly impacted progress on the MDGs and other IADGs.

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  • The private bond market remains much smaller than that for the government. The outstanding issuance of corporate bonds has risen to almost 10 percent of GDP in 2011, but the market is still very concentrated in short duration rates, with a limited investor base and less diversified issuers. This suggests that the private fixed income market is not a significant long-term financing source for non-financial corporations. Indexation: Around 90 percent of private bonds are linked to the DI rate, resulting in little incentive for active trading.

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  • This paper reviews current marketing practices in the pharmaceutical sector, examining both consumer and doctor-oriented promotion. It presents examples of marketing practices and their impact on consumer and doctor behaviour. It identifies negative impacts of these practices which include misleading advertising, disease mongering and escalating costs. It goes on to argue the need for an independently-monitored code of practice for marketers in the pharmaceutical sector and a greater degree of consumer education for both end-users and those prescribing drugs.

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  • Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field which addresses biological problems using computational techniques, and makes the rapid organization and analysis of biological data possible. The field may also be referred to as computational biology, and can be defined as, "conceptualizing biology in terms of molecules and then applying informatics techniques to understand and organize the information associated with these molecules, on a large scale.

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  • Conferences in the medical or pharmaceutical sectors often attract lucrative sponsorship from pharmaceutical and medical equipment companies keen to promote their products and these events usually have valuable commercial exhibitions attached. The commercial sponsors will often host groups of their top clients in whichever specialist field and prepare a luxury programme for them. These groups can make up as much as 75% of the delegates attending a conference and there is competition between the companies to provide quality programmes for their delegates e.g.

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  • These criteria set a general framework for monitoring existing and proposed legislation. But monitoring the actual policy needs of SME is difficult even in advanced economies. There is a need to establish mechanisms for effective public-private sector dialogue and feedback from those who implement legislation. Business associations from time to time can undertake studies of members’ needs and governments anticipating a particularly acute problem or proposing new forms of legislation may commission surveys.

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  • It is estimated that more than 75% of the population uses traditional medicine primarily to treat health-related problems. In 2005, an evaluation confirmed the availability of high quality medicines in all provinces as one of the main achievements and the most important progress made in the pharmaceutical sector. However, despite this positive result, the evaluation report pointed out several issues and challenges (i.e.

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  • Medicine availability and prices in both public and private sectors are key indicators of access to treatment. Surveys of medicine prices and availability, conducted using a standard methodology, have shown that poor medicine availability, particularly in the public sector, is a key barrier to access to medicines. Public sector availability of generic medicines is less than 60% across WHO regions, ranging from 32% in the Eastern Mediterranean Region to 58% in the European Region. Private sector availability of generic medicines is higher that in the public sector in all regions.

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  • Because resources are limited, health economists are concerned with determining what medical services to produce, how they should be produced, and who should receive them. As we will see in this lecture, the tools of economics can be applied to the health care sector to derive valuable insights about our health care system.

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  • The report also identifies water-related risks for electric power/energy, apparel, biotechnology/pharmaceutical, forest products and metals/mining firms. For companies in these and other sectors, climate change will further reduce the availability of reliable and high quality water, impacting productivity, costs, revenues, public goodwill and reputation. The report highlights the intensifying conflict between energy use and water availability. With increasing frequency, choosing one of these resources means undermining the other – the other, usually being water.

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  • As with national association meetings, the segment encompasses a wide range of organisations which can be governmental, professional, scientific or social in nature. However, it is usually the medical, scientific and pharmaceutical meetings which are the most attractive both in terms of attendance and revenue.

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  • .Pharmaceutical Reform is available as an interactive textbook at http://www .worldbank.org/pdt. The electronic version allows communities of practice and colleagues working in sectors and regions, as well as students and teachers, to share notes and related materials for an enhanced, multimedia learning and knowledge-exchange experience.

    pdf356p nunongnuna 05-04-2013 20 1   Download

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