“Laparoscopy“ is derived from two Greek words
meaning “flank” and “insight.” Laparoscopy is the
established term although „celioscopy“, meaning intraabdominal
insight, would have been more accurate.
Today “laparoscopy” describes a procedure during
which contents of the intraperitoneal cavity or of
the extraperitoneal space are examined and manipulated
in a diagnostic or therapeutic intervention.
In 1974, John Ranson published his seminal paper on
the stratification of severity of clinical acute pancreatitis.
Using statistical manipulation of 43 clinical and
laboratory variables obtained from a consecutive series
of 100 patients with acute pancreatitis, he was able to
identify 11 “prognostic signs” that proved to be significantly
associated with clinical severity, as measured
by the development of morbidity or mortality.
Nutrition is of interest to everyone. For the impoverished, nutrition is an issue of
obtaining enough food to survive. For some, it is a health concern in their fight
against obesity and diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and degenerative skeletal
disorders that accompany this nutritional problem. For others, it is of interest so that
they will not be embarrassed wearing their bathing suits.
Improved understanding of carcinogenesis has allowed cancer prevention and early detection (also known as cancer control) to expand beyond the identification and avoidance of carcinogens. Specific interventions to prevent cancer in those at risk, and more sensitive and specific screening for early detection of cancer are the goals. Carcinogenesis is not simply an event but a process, a continuum of discrete cellular changes over time resulting in more autonomous cellular processes.
The goals of experimental neuroscience research are fundamentally to gain mechanistic
understanding of the pathology of disease in order to identify appropriate
targets for potential pharmacological intervention and evaluation of putative therapies.
With the advances in gene manipulation and transgene technologies, we have
unprecedented ability to generate animal models of disease that more closely mimic
the clinical conditions.
Noninvasive techniques capable of investigating altered pathophysiologies are
now of paramount importance.