The emerging field of nanotechnology is affirming its increasing importance day
by day. In this context fullerenes and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) play an important
role. These new allotropic forms of carbon have been discovered in the last two
decades, and, since then, they have stimulated the curiosity and interest of physicists
This book is the first of a new series entitled “Carbon Materials:
Chemistry and Physics”, the purpose of which is to analyze the new frontiers of
Preclinical drug development. Discovery of new drugs in the laboratory is an exercise in prediction • Techniques of discovery. Sophisticated molecular modelling allows precise design of potential new therapeutic substances and new technologies have increased the rate of development of potential medicines. Studies in animals and in humans Prediction. Failures of prediction occur and a drug may be abandoned at any stage, including after marketing. New drug development is a colossally expensive and commercially driven activity. ...
Clinical pharmacology comprises all aspects of the scientific study of drugs in man. Its objective is to optimise drug therapy and it is justified in so far as it is of practical use.
Over recent years pharmacology has undergone great expansion resulting from technology that allows the understanding of molecular action and the capacity to exploit this. The potential consequences for therapeutics are enormous. All cellular mechanisms (normal and pathological), in their immense complexity are, in principle, identifiable.
Deliberate and accidental self-poisoning Principles of treatment Poison-specific measures General measures Specific poisonings: cyanide, methanol, ethylene glycol, hydrocarbons, volatile solvents, heavy metals, herbicides and pesticides, biological substances (overdose of medicinal drugs is dealt with under individual agents) Incapacitating agents: drugs used for torture
drugs, and psychotropic drugs is increasing. Repeated episodes are not rare.1 Prescribed drugs are used in over 75% of episodes but teenagers tend to favour nonprescribed analgesics available by direct sale, e.g.
The field of drug therapy is a rapidly changing and somewhat bewildering area to study. In
developing and writing this textbook, we consulted the most up-to-date sources for information
on new drug therapies. No textbook can be complete, especially when it covers an area as vast as
the field of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics. Nonetheless, we have made a conscientious
effort to cover the most important and commonly used medications in a format that is easy to
Plants defend themselves from other organisms by elaborating bioactive chemical
defences. This is the essential basis of the use of herbal medicines that still represents a
major therapeutic resort for much of humanity However, at the outset, it must be stated that
any plant that is not part of our evolved dietary cultures is potentially dangerous.
Commercial herbal medicinal preparations approved by expert regulatory authorities have a
significant place in mainstream conventional medicine and in complementary medicine.
In the past two decades, enormous strides have been made
in our understanding of the relationships between inflammation,
innate immune responses, adaptive immune responses,
and degenerative human diseases. The developing information
has mostly appeared in specialty journals that have dealt
only with isolated aspects of these tightly related fields. As
a result, contemporary scientists have had a difficult time
finding sources, even in review articles, that provide an
Transferase Variants One of the most extensively studied phase II polymorphisms is the PM trait for thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT). TPMT bioinactivates the antileukemic drug 6-mercaptopurine. Further, 6-mercaptopurine is itself an active metabolite of the immunosuppressive azathioprine. Homozygotes for alleles encoding the inactive TPMT (1 in 300 individuals) predictably exhibit severe and potentially fatal pancytopenia on standard doses of azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine.
While researching this book, I came across a letter in the journal Nature asking for
caution in the current trend for the use of humorous nomenclature for newly
discovered genes1, the author referring to the tumour suppressor gene Pokemon,
which I have briefly described in Chapter 4.
Twenty years ago in the twenty-first edition of the
Principles and Practice of Medicine, the authors
described what was then the practice for the pharmacologic
therapy of patients with heart failure,
which included digoxin and a diuretic . In addition,
the authors noted that recent studies had
supported the potential use of vasodilators in the
treatment of this population of patients.
Advances in our understanding of the molecular principles underlining both health and disease
has revealed the existence of many regulatory polypeptides of significant medical potential. The
fact that such polypeptides are produced naturally within the body only in minute quantities
initially precluded their large-scale medical application. The development in the 1970s of the
twin techniques of genetic engineering and hybridoma technology marked the birth of the
modern biotech era.
As with the first and second editions, the goal of this
third edition of Pediatric Epilepsy: Diagnosis and Therapy
is to assist all professionals involved in the care of pediatric
patients with seizures and epilepsy. Our goal continues
to be the perfect result: no seizures, no side effects, and
no stigma to limit these children from achieving their
Electrocardiograms (ECGs) are the graphic representation of body surface potential
differences generated by the electrical activity of the heart. Bipolar limb
leads, augmentedunipolar limb leads and precordial leads have been used routinely
for recording the ECG, which remains an essential part of the cardiac
examination, even after the advent of cardiac catheterization, angiocardiography,
echocardiography and many other sophisticated diagnostic modalities.
Although every effort has been made to ensure that
information about techniques and equipment is presented
accurately in this publication, the ultimate
responsibility rests with the practitioner physician.
Use of these techniques or items of equipment does
not guarantee outcomes or that they are the optimal
procedures available. Procedure results and potential
complications frequently vary between patients:
physicians must evaluate their patients individually
and make appropriate decisions about treatment
based on each analysis....
The goal of cancer treatment is first to eradicate the cancer. If this primary goal cannot be accomplished, the goal of cancer treatment shifts to palliation, the amelioration of symptoms, and preservation of quality of life while striving to extend life. The dictum primum non nocere is not the guiding principle of cancer therapy. When cure of cancer is possible, cancer treatments may be undertaken despite the certainty of severe and perhaps life-threatening toxicities.
The Final FRCA examination has a daunting syllabus which is tested by a multiple
choice paper, by written short answer questions, and by two oral examinations, one
in clinical anaesthesia, and a second in applied basic clinical science. This book is
intended to give you some insight into how the clinical science viva works, along
with some general guidance as to how to improve your chances of passing. More
importantly it aims to provide you with a wide range of potential questions which
contain, nonetheless, a manageable amount of information....
When I started examining patients with ultrasound for musculoskeletal disorders we were
still using static “B” scanners. CT was a new invention and MRI did not exist. Whilst my
contemporaries were enthusiastically specialising in the use of nuclear medicine and ultrasound,
I chose to take an interest and eventually a full-time specialisation in a system rather
than a machine. The principal strength of this choice is that I use all imaging methods and
hopefully have insight into their advantages and weaknesses in each potential application.
The development of drug treatments for diseases of the retina and back of the eye has
been slow. Among the principal causes for this have been a failure of the pharmaceutical
industry to appreciate the potential size of the market these diseases represent,
a poor understanding of the disease processes themselves, and technical
difficulty in delivering drugs to the back of the eye. There have been recent rapid
advances in all three areas with many more changes likely to occur in the next decade.
Calculate the Nernst equilibrium potential for sodium, potassium, and calcium ions given
their intracellular and extracellular concentrations.
3. Describe how changing the concentrations of sodium, potassium, and calcium ions inside
and outside the cell affect the resting membrane potential in cardiac cells.
4. Explain why the resting potential is near the equilibrium potential for potassium and the
peak of an action potential approaches the equilibrium potential for sodium.
Helicobacter pylori, which persistently colonizes the stomachs of ~50% of the world's human population, is the main risk factor for peptic ulceration (Chap. 287) as well as for gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (Chap. 87). Treatment for H. pylori has revolutionized the management of peptic ulcer disease, providing a permanent cure in many cases. The prevention of H. pylori colonization could potentially represent primary prevention of gastric malignancy and peptic ulceration.