We live in a time when digital information plays a key role in various fields. Whether we
look towards communications, industry, medicine, scientific research or entertainment,
we find digital images to be heavily employed. The high volume of stored and
transacted digital images, together with the increasing availability of advanced digital
image acquisition and display techniques and devices, came with a growing need for
novel, fast and intelligent algorithms for the digital manipulation of digital images....
Research activities in laser physics and in photonics technologies over the last two
decades have continuously produced a large diversity of new advances. Several
examples illustrate the major impact of optics in the quantum sciences, engineering,
metrology, communication fiber networks, or high-capacity data storage. Besides
these established fields of research and development for industry or for the consumer
markets, laser optics will certainly disseminate in the near future in new areas such
as biology, chemistry, medicine, or nanotechnologies.
The development of quantum mechanics has taken physics in a vastly new direction from that of classical physics from the very start. In fact, there continue at present to be many developments in the subject of a very fundamental nature, such as implications for the foundations of physics, physics of entanglement, geometric phases, gravity and cosmology and elementary particles as well. It is hoped the papers in this volume will provide a much needed resource for researchers with regard to current topics of research in this growing area....
Brillouin scattering was discovered in 1922 by Louis Brillouin . It is one of
a number of characteristic scattering phenomena that occur when light interacts
with solid, liquid or gaseous media and corresponds to the scattering of
light from thermally-induced acoustical waves (propagating pressure/density
waves) present in media at all temperatures. At normal light levels the
amount of scattering is small. The characteristics of the scattering can offer
interesting information about the properties of the medium (temperature,
pressure) and form the basis for remote fibre sensor devices.
The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) algorithms have a firm position in processing
of signals in several areas of research and industry. As DWT provides both octavescale
frequency and spatial timing of the analyzed signal, it is constantly used to solve
and treat more and more advanced problems. The DWT algorithms were initially
based on the compactly supported conjugate quadrature filters (CQFs). However, a
drawback in CQFs is due to the nonlinear phase effects such as spatial dislocations in
DWTs are constantly used to solve and treat more and more advanced problems. The
DWT algorithms were initially based on the compactly supported conjugate
quadrature filters (CQFs). However, a drawback in CQFs is due to the nonlinear phase
effects such as spatial dislocations in multi-scale analysis. This is avoided in
biorthogonal discrete wavelet transform (BDWT) algorithms, where the scaling and
wavelet filters are symmetric and linear phase. The biorthogonal filters are usually
constructed by a ladder-type network called lifting scheme.
Compared with hydrophilic drugs not undergoing transport, lipophilic drugs are more rapidly taken up from the blood into hepatocytes and more readily gain access to mixed-function oxidases embedded in sER membranes. For instance, a drug having lipophilicity by virtue of an aromatic substituent (phenyl ring) (B) can be hydroxylated and, thus, become more hydrophilic (Phase I reaction, p. 34). Besides oxidases, sER also contains reductases and glucuronyl transferases. The latter conjugate glucuronic acid with hydroxyl, carboxyl, amine, and amide groups (p.
The extent to which an organic molecule absorbs electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet region (UV light) depends on the structure of the molecule. Generally, molecules that contain one single double bond absorb weakly in the UV region. However, if multiple double bonds are present in a molecule and they are conjugated, the molecule absorbs more strongly and the absorbance is shifted to longer wavelengths. The pH of the mobile-phase effects the ionization of ionogenic solutes and also the analyte UV response.
However, cellular uptake of aglycones has been suggested to occur in their native form by
passive diffusion. Absorbed polyphenols can directly undergo phase II metabolism as
phenolic structures are generally unfavorable substrates to the cytochrome P450s (phase I
metabolism). At nutritional doses, almost all polyphenols are conjugated to form O-
glucuronides, sulfate esters and O-methyl ethers, by glucuronidation, sulfation and
methylation, in the gut mucosa and later in the liver or kidney.
unabsorbed polyphenols may play a role in the protection of the GI tract against RONS
prior to their fecal excretion. In contrast to native polyphenols, less data exists on the
antioxidant activity of bioavailable polyphenol phase II metabolites (conjugated
Allahyari et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:360 http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/6/1/360
Conjugate heat transfer of laminar mixed convection of a nanofluid through an inclined tube with circumferentially non-uniform heating
Shahriar Allahyari1, Amin Behzadmehr1* and Seyed Masoud Hosseini Sarvari2
Abstract Laminar mixed convection of a nanofluid consisting of water and Al2O3 in an inclined tube with heating at the top half surface of a copper tube has been studied numerically.