Much faster alkylation of enolate anions can often be achieved in dimethylformamide
(DMF), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) than
in the usual protic solvents. The presence of hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA)
or a triamine or tetramine can also enhance the rate of alkylation. This is thought to
be because of the fact that these solvents or additives solvate the cation, but not the
enolate, thereby separating the cation–enolate ion pair. This leaves a relatively free
enolate ion, which would be expected to be a more reactive nucleophile than the ion
This book, the third in the InTech Tsunami series, has been published in order to deepen efforts towards the understanding of tsunami dynamics that seems to be never enough. As the previous books in this series, "The Tsunami Threat - Research and Technology" (January 2011) and "Tsunami - A Growing Disaster" (December 2011), this multi-disciplinary volume compiles a collection of scientific papers showing the state-of-the-art of tsunami research at different levels.
THUẬT NGỮ AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise Tạp âm Gauss trắng cộng BER Bit Error Rate Tỷ số bit lỗi BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying Modulation Điều chế khóa dịch pha hai trạng thái CDMA Code Division Multiple Access Đa truy nhập phân chia theo mã DPS Delay Power Spectrum Phổ công suất trễ FFT Fast Fourier Transform Biến đổi Fourier nhanh FSR FFT time to Symbol period Ratio in an OFDM symbol Tỷ số giữa thời gian FFT và chu kỳ ký hiệu OFDM ICI Inter Carrier Interference Nhiễu giữa các sóng mang IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transfo...