Xem 1-20 trên 61 kết quả Phenomena in biology
  • During the past two decades, reductionist biological science has generated new empirical data on the molecular foundations of biological structure and function at an accelerating rate. The list of organisms whose complete genomes have been sequenced is growing by the week. Annotations of these sequences are becoming more comprehensive, and databases of protein structure are growing at impressive, indeed formerly unimaginable rates.

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  • Biological signal analysis1 encompasses several interdisciplinary topics that deal with analysing signals generated by various physiological processes in the human body. These signals could be electrical, chemical or acoustic in origin and an analysis of these signals are often useful in explaining and/or identifying pathological conditions of the human body. However, these signals in their rawest form do not provide much information and therefore, the motivation behind biological signal analysis is to extract (i.e. to reveal) the relevant information.

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  • Susan L.Lindquist*† and Steven Henikoff‡ *Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142; and ‡The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109 Over the past half-century, the central dogma, in which DNA makes RNA makes protein, has dominated thinking in biology, with continuing refinements in understanding of DNA inheritance, gene expression, and macromolecular interactions. However, we have also witnessed the elucidation of epigenetic phenomena that violate conventional notions of inheritance.

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  • In the last two decades, fractional (or non integer) differentiation has played a very important role in various fields such as mechanics, electricity, chemistry, biology, economics, control theory and signal and image processing. For example, in the last three fields, some important considerations such as modelling, curve fitting, filtering, pattern recognition, edge detection, identification, stability, controllability, observability and robustness are now linked to long-range dependence phenomena. Similar progress has been made in other fields listed here.

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  • Performing experiments in low Earth orbit has been the focus of much of the research funded by NASA’s Physical Sciences Division (PSD) and its predecessors for over 30 years. This microgravity research can be divided into five broad areas, all of which focus primarily on phenomena that are strongly perturbed by gravity: biotechnology, combustion, fluid physics, fundamental physics, and materials science.

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  • Another aspect of the distinction between mere experience and an experience involves the relationship between doing and undergoing. ‘A man does something; he lifts, let us say, a stone. In consequence he undergoes, suffers, something: the weight, strain, texture of the surface of the thing lifted. The properties thus undergone determine further doing’ (p. 44). Dewey goes on to say, ‘An experience has pattern and structure, because it is not just doing and undergoing in alternation, but consists of them in relationship. … ...

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  • Ionic methods of separation have been used since the industrial revolution in Europe to reduce hardness of water. In the mid-nineteenth century, British researchers treated various clays with ammonium sulfate or carbonate in solution to release calcium. In the early twentieth century, zeolite columns were used to remove interfering calcium and magnesium ions from solutions to permit determination of sulfate. Ionic separation procedures were used in the Manhattan project to purify and concentrate radioactive materials needed to make atom bombs.

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  • Innovation is a natural talent of humanity. Over several recorded millennia, curiosity has spurred discovery and the creation of artefacts that utilised natural substances or phenomena to serve human needs. The goal has been, often, to achieve something more quickly or with less effort or, in some cases, to extend curiosity by setting new goals.

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  • Interfacial systems are frequently encountered in a large variety of phenomena in biology and industry. A few examples that come to mind are adsorption, catalysis, corrosion, flotation, osmosis, and colloidal stability. In particular, surface films are very interesting from a cognitive point of view. Surface science has a long history. For many years, natural philosophers were curious about interfacial phenomena because it was quite clear that matter near surface differs in its properties from the same matter in bulk...

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  • In the absence of serglycin proteoglycans, connective tissue-type mast cells fail to assemble mature metachromatic secretory granules, and this is accompanied by a markedly reduced ability to store neutral proteases. However, the mechanisms behind these phenomena are not known.

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  • The lipids found in biological systems are either hydrophobic (containing only nonpolar groups) or amphipathic (possessing both polar and nonpolar groups). The hydrophobic nature of lipid molecules allows membranes to act as effective barriers to more polar molecules. In this chapter, we discuss the chemical and physical properties of the various classes of lipid molecules. The following chapter considers membranes, whose properties depend intimately on their lipid constituents.

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  • All optical phenomena experience interference effects at some level. Even light from an incandescent light bulb has partial coherence that can lead to constructive or destructive interference when multiple light paths are combined at a detector. The ubiquitous nature of interference underlies many phenomena and techniques in biological optics. This chapter lays the foundation for interferometry applied to biology and medicine.

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  • Series of lectures by Nobel Prize-winning physicist Edwin Schrodinger, he explains biological phenomena in quantum mechanics, the contents of his forecasts on the introduction of DNA, from this lecture series Revolution Born Molecular born. Refer to the contents of the book "Mind and Matter" below to learn more about the issue.

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  • Compounds that influence the rates of enzyme-catalyzed reactions are called modulators, moderators, or modifiers. Usually, the effect is to reduce the rate, and this is called inhibition. Sometimes the enzyme reaction is increased, and this is called activation. Accordingly, the compounds are termed inhibitors or activators. When studying these phenomena, one has to understand the molecular events.

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  • This volume covers a diverse collection of topics dealing with some of the fundamental concepts and applications embodied in the study of nonlinear dynamics. Each of the 15 chapters contained in this compendium generally fit into one of five topical areas: physics applications, nonlinear oscillators, electrical and mechanical systems, biological and behavioral applications or random processes. The authors of these chapters have contributed a stimulating cross section of new results, which provide a fertile spectrum of ideas that will inspire both seasoned researches and students....

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  • During development, cells and tissues undergo dynamic changes in pattern and form that employ a wider range of physical mechanisms than at any other time during an organism’s life. Biological Physics of the Developing Embryo presents a framework within which physics can be used to analyze these biological phenomena. Written to be accessible to both biologists and physicists, major stages and components of biological development are introduced and then analyzed from the viewpoint of physics. The presentation of physical models requires no mathematics beyond basic calculus.

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  • Biological and medical phenomena are complex and intelligent. Our observations and understanding of some of these phenomena have inspired the development of creative theories and technologies in science. This process will continue to occur as new developments in our understanding and perception of natural phenomena continue. Given the complexity of our natural world this is not likely to end.

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  • Dynamical systems theory in mathematical biology and environmental science has attracted much attention from many scientific fields as well as mathematics. For example, “chaos” is one of its typical topics. Recently the preservation of endangered species has become one of the most important issues in biology and environmental science, because of the recent rapid loss of biodiversity in the world. In this respect, permanence or persistence, new concepts in dynamical systems theory, seem important.

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  • Biometrics-Unique and Diverse Applications in Nature, Science, and Technology provides a unique sampling of the diverse ways in which biometrics is integrated into our lives and our technology. From time immemorial, we as humans have been intrigued by, perplexed by, and entertained by observing and analyzing ourselves and the natural world around us.

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  • In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: Distinctive properties of living systems, biomolecules: molecules of life, biomolecular hierarchy, properties of biomolecules, organization and structure of cells, viruses as cell parasites.

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