Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Minireview cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Uncovering metabolic pathways relevant to phenotypic traits of microbial genomes...
Genetic programming (GP) is a branch of Evolutionary Computing that aims the automatic discovery of programs to solve a given problem. Since its appearance, in the earliest nineties, GP has become one of the most promising paradigms for solving problems in the artificial intelligence field, producing a number of human-competitive results and even patentable new inventions. And, as other areas in Computer Science, GP continues evolving quickly, with new ideas, techniques and applications being constantly proposed....
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh Original cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về sinh học đề tài:Phenotypic plasticity of body pigmentation in Drosophila: Computing marginal posterior densities of genetic parameters of a multiple trait animal model using Laplace approximation or Gibbs sampling...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh Original cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về sinh học đề tài:Phenotypic plasticity of body pigmentation in Drosophila: Genetic parameters of feeding behaviour and performance traits in group-housed...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh Original cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về sinh học đề tài:Phenotypic plasticity of body pigmentation in Drosophila: Genetic and environmental factors affecting some reproductive traits of Holstein cows in Cuba...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học Journal of Biology đề tài: Phenotypic and genetic variability of morphometrical traits in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster and D simulans. I. Geographic variations
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học Journal of Biology đề tài: Genetic and phenotypic relationships between physiological traits and performance test traits in sheep
“Epigenetics” as introduced by ConradWaddington in 1946, is defined as a set of interactions
between genes and the surrounding environment, which determines the phenotype or
physical traits in an organism, (Murrell et al., 2005;Waddington, 1942). Initial research focused
on genomic regions such as heterochromatin and euchromatin based on dense and relatively
loose DNA packing, since these were known to contain inactive and active genes respectively,
(Yasuhara et al., 2005).
How different levels of
genetic variance affect the rate of evolutionary change within populations has also been
intensively studied. Such changes were originally studied using phenotypic markers:
variation among individual plants in traits, such as leaf shape or flower color (Ward et al.,
2008). Subsequently the detection of genetic variation has become more sensitive, firstly
through the utilization of variation in enzymes (allozymes) and then through PCR-based
marker systems allowing direct examination of DNA sequence variation.
Complex Genetic Disorders
The expression of many common diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, psychiatric disorders, and certain cancers is determined by a combination of genetic background, environmental factors, and lifestyle. A trait is called polygenic if multiple genes contribute to the phenotype or multifactorial if multiple genes are assumed to interact with environmental factors. Genetic models for these complex traits need to account for genetic heterogeneity and interactions with other genes and the environment.
Severity is highly variable. Known modulating factors are those that ameliorate the burden of unpaired α-globin inclusions. Alleles associated with milder synthetic defects and co-inheritance of α-thalassemia trait reduce clinical severity by reducing accumulation of excess α globin. HbF persists to various degrees in β-thalassemias. γ-Globin gene chains can substitute for βchains, generating more hemoglobin and reducing the burden of α-globin inclusions. The terms β-thalassemia major and β-thalassemia intermedia are used to reflect the clinical heterogeneity.
Hemoglobin E HbE (i.e., α2β226Glu - Lys) is extremely common in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam. The gene has become far more prevalent in the United States as a result of immigration of Asian persons, especially in California, where HbE is the most common variant detected. HbE is mildly unstable but not enough to affect RBC life span significantly. The high frequency of the HbE gene may be a result of the thalassemia phenotype associated with its inheritance. Heterozygotes resemble individuals with mild β-thalassemia trait.
Until recent years, cultivars’ identification was based only on morphological and agronomic
traits. However, recognition of olive cultivars based on phenotypic characters revealed to be
problematic, especially in early stages of tree development. Traditionally diversity within
and between olive tree cultivars was determined by assessing differences in olive tree,
namely leaf shape and color, and olive fruits morphology.
As most readers know, evolutionary biology took off only
after it was synthesized with population genetics in the
1920s and 1930’s (Fisher 1930). Mathematical treatments
of allele frequencies that incorporated selection, drift,
mutation, and migration made it possible to begin to
understand the forces that shaped the genome. As Lewon-
tin (1974) has noted, however, this theory developed
separately from breeder’s theories about selection for
phenotypes; the task of mapping changes in allele frequency
to changes in phenotype remains a challenge.
Canada has been at the forefront in the establishment and study of longitudinal cohorts aimed at defining behavioural traits,
all of which continue to be studied (e.g. ELEM 1037 boys ascertained in kindergarten in 1984; ELEMQ 3018 children
ascertained in kindergarten in 1986; ELDEQ 2872 births ascertained in 1997; and 600 pairs of twins born and ascertained in
1996, ELNEJ 30,000 children aged 0-11 followed every 2 years since 1994). DNA and extensive longitudinal phenotypic
information is already available for all cohorts except ELNEJ.