This book is, first and foremost, a treatise in applied ethics. Most ethics texts explain
the duties of professionals that are outlined in the profession’s ethical code. This book
is designed to assist the mental health professional in developing the ability to reason
ethically, a skill that is an extraordinarily important component of professionalism in
any field, but one that is grossly underdeveloped in many professionals. The greatest
challenges to ethical professional practice are the novel situations that arise involving
conflicts between two ethical principles.
We must first acknowledge George S. Clason’s ageless compilation of The Richest Man in Babylon as the wonderful philosophical basis for the Money Mastery principles. The essence of paying oneself, dealing forthrightly with debt, and seeking financial mentors is what this book is built upon
The position taken by the writer of this volume should be clearly understood. It is not the view known as
antivivisection, so far as this means the condemnation without exception of all phases of biological
investigation. There are methods of research which involve no animal suffering, and which are of scientific
utility. Within certain careful limitations, these would seem justifiable.
Cognition encompasses the scientific study of the human mind and how it
processes information; it focuses on one of the most difficult of all mysteries
that humans have addressed. The mind is an enormously complex system
holding a unique position in science: by necessity, we must use the mind to
study itself, and so the focus of study and the instrument used for study are
recursively linked. The sheer tenacity of human curiosity has in our own lifetimes
brought answers to many of the most challenging scientific questions we
have had the ambition to ask.
IT HAS BEEN SAID THAT SIR ISAAC NEWTON was the last person to know everything. He was an
accomplished physicist (his three laws of motion were the basis of classical mechanics, which defi ned
astrophysics for three centuries), mathematician (he was one of the inventors of calculus and
developed Newton’s Method for fi nding roots of equations), astronomer, natural philosopher,
and alchemist (okay, maybe the last one was a mistake). He invented the refl ecting telescope, a theory
of color, and a law of cooling, and he studied the speed of sound.
TSC stands for a bottom-up approach to cognition that has its basis in
the claim that the evolution and development of cognition from simple to
more complex processes are continuous (cf. Johnson & Rohrer 2006). The
theory looks for support in the theory of biological evolution, data from
developmental psychology, and analyses of the signiﬁcance of the body for
abstract thought by philosophers such as Dewey and Merleau-Ponty.
To clarify, my notion of internal identity refers to an individual’s self-perception in
relation to their experiences and the world. As it is reflective in nature, self-perception
cannot be purely manifested internally. Without society and experience as a basis for
reflexivity, there can be no internalized evaluation (Giddens 1991: 52-53). As such,
history, experience and interaction provide the model by which individuals can give
meaning to the physical, psychological, philosophical, and moral aspects of their identity.