Xem 1-12 trên 12 kết quả Philosophical models
  • Methodological philosophy of science concerns itself, among other things, with issues about the nature of scientific theories, of scientific explanation, and of intertheoretic reduction. Philosophers of science frequently have attempted to identify and "rationally reconstruct" distinct types of reasoning employed by scientists as they go about their business.

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  • Any book is like a reflection of its authors in a stream. It captures something of the story of who they are, but distorts the image at the same time. Such is the nature of water— such is the nature of reflection. We hope that the reader will find something of us here that is recognisable, in a human sense. There is much of us in the Tidal Model. However, expressing that, as with anything else, is often difficult. Words are great tools, but as we marvel at their beauty, we may fear what we might actually do with them. This is a storybook. It is...

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  • An organization must provide individuals with an opportunity to choose (opt out) if and how the personal information they provide is used or disclosed to third parties, if such use is not compatible with the original purpose for which the information was collected. Individuals must be provided with clear, readily available, and affordable mechanisms to exercise this option.

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  • For the philosopher of history, G.W.F. Hegel, the fundamental challenge for any student of societal evolution is to apprehend in thought the spirit of the age (or the zeitgeist)—i.e., to understand the motive force of change while it is still at work (Lauer, 1974). Catching the zeitgeist ‘in the act,’ so to speak, is a matter of practical importance; for gaining such an understanding would seem to be a necessary, if not sufficient, condition for successfully shaping ‘for the better’ any future state of affairs. Hegel does not give us much cause for optimism here.

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  • That slim and dispiriting publication Jobs for Philosophers made particularly brief anddismal reading in 1987,when I gotmyphilosophydoctorate. The ratio of available posts in university philosophy departments to the people applying for them was said to be about one to 300.

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  • Well-being is more than the absence of mental illness. One review of the literature (Ryan & Deci, 2001) describes it as ‘optimal psychological functioning and experience’. Precisely what constitutes optimal experience has been the subject of philosophical debate since the roots of the hedonic tradition in the 4th century BC when it was proposed that the goal of life was to experience the maximum amount of pleasure.

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  • Interfacial systems are frequently encountered in a large variety of phenomena in biology and industry. A few examples that come to mind are adsorption, catalysis, corrosion, flotation, osmosis, and colloidal stability. In particular, surface films are very interesting from a cognitive point of view. Surface science has a long history. For many years, natural philosophers were curious about interfacial phenomena because it was quite clear that matter near surface differs in its properties from the same matter in bulk...

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  • Many, such as the Luddites and prominent philosopher Martin Heidegger, hold serious, although not entirely deterministic reservations, about technology (see "The Question Concerning Technology[45])". According to Heidegger scholars Hubert Dreyfus and Charles Spinosa, "Heidegger does not oppose technology. He hopes to reveal the essence of technology in a way that 'in no way confines us to a stultified compulsion to push on blindly with technology or, what comes to the same thing, to rebel helplessly against it.

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  • Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, opining that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition.

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  • The phenomenon of globalization has captured the popular imagination in the last decade or so. This is reflected in numerous books published on this topic from various academic disciplines and across philosophical discourses. In discussing the various facets of globalization, almost all discourses consider the role of business and/or multinational corporations to be very salient in either enhancing this phenomenon or managing the process of globalization.

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  • THE attempt to conceive imaginatively a better ordering of human society than the destructive and cruel chaos in which mankind has hitherto existed is by no means modern: it is at least as old as Plato, whose "Republic" set the model for the Utopias of subsequent philosophers. Whoever contemplates the world in the light of an ideal - whether what he seeks be intellect, or art, or love, or simple happiness, or all together - must feel a great sorrow in the evils that men needlessly allow to continue, and - if he be a man of force and vital energy - an urgent desire to lead men...

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  • To clarify, my notion of internal identity refers to an individual’s self-perception in relation to their experiences and the world. As it is reflective in nature, self-perception cannot be purely manifested internally. Without society and experience as a basis for reflexivity, there can be no internalized evaluation (Giddens 1991: 52-53). As such, history, experience and interaction provide the model by which individuals can give meaning to the physical, psychological, philosophical, and moral aspects of their identity.

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