Xem 1-17 trên 17 kết quả Philosophical terms
  • In his Logic Hegel has endeavored to incorporate the essential principles of philosophy which in the development of the worlds thought have forced themselves upon men’s convictions, and have been attested by a general consensus of opinion. An insight into the Hegelian system means, therefore, a comprehensive and appreciative grasp of the history of philosophy in the salient features of its progress.

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  • The words we use to communicate every day are important in every aspect of our lives. From relaxing, to working, to studying, to taking tests, we use words to share with others how we feel, what we think, and why we think that way.Without words, it is difficult to express our ideas to the rest of the world. The more words we know—the larger our vocabulary—the more clearly we can communicate with others. Our vocabularies reveal our knowledge to the world; therefore, a person with a large vocabulary has the advantage of self-expression....

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  • To discuss embryological thought in seventeenth-century England is to discuss the main currents in embryological thought at a time when those currents were both numerous and shifting. Like every other period, the seventeenth century was one of transition. It was an era of explosive growth in scientific ideas and techniques, suffused with a creative urge engendered by new philosophical insights and the excitement of discovery.

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  • This book contains the substance, and for the most part the words, of a course of public lectures delivered during the first three months of 1919. The original division into lectures has been dropped, the matter being more conveniently redivided into chapters. The audience to whom the lectures were delivered was composed of members of the general public, and not only of students. For the most part they possessed no previous knowledge of philosophy.

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  • A variety of scientific disciplines have set as their task explaining mental activities, recognizing that in some way these activities depend upon our brain. But, until recently, the opportunities to conduct experiments directly on our brains were limited. As a result, research efforts were split between disciplines such as cognitive psychology, linguistics, and artificial intelligence that investigated behavior, while disciplines such as neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and genetics experimented on the brains of non-human animals.

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  • This book attempts two interrelated tasks. The fi rst is to arrive at an understanding of practical knowledge and how expertise is related to it. The second is to show how such an understanding informs the various educational tasks of developing expertise.

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  • In physics, particles that cannot be broken down into any other particles are called elementary particles. The term elementary particles also is used more loosely to include some subatomic particles that are composed of other particles. Particles that cannot be broken further are sometimes called fundamental particles to avoid confusion. These fundamental particles provide the basic units that make up all matter and energy in the universe. Scientists and philosophers have sought to identify and study elementary particles since ancient times. ...

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  • The phenomenon of globalization has captured the popular imagination in the last decade or so. This is reflected in numerous books published on this topic from various academic disciplines and across philosophical discourses. In discussing the various facets of globalization, almost all discourses consider the role of business and/or multinational corporations to be very salient in either enhancing this phenomenon or managing the process of globalization.

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  • The term "liberalism," from the Latin "liber" meaning "free," referred originally to the philosophy of freedom. It still retained this meaning in Europe when this book was written (1927) so that readers who opened its covers expected an analysis of the freedom philosophy of classical liberalism. Unfortunately, however, in recent decades, "liberalism" has come to mean something very different. The word has been taken over, especially in the United States, by philosophical socialists and used by them to refer to their government intervention and "welfare state" programs.

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  • Ergonomics, also known as Human Factors, is a recent scientific discipline, curiously with a well‐defined and official date and place of birth, July 12, 1949, in England. However the term Ergonomics, was proposed in 1857, by the Polish philosopher and naturalist Wojciech Jastrzebowski and fell into oblivion for nearly a century. The word Ergonomics results from joining the Greek words ergon meaning ʺworkʺ and nomos meaning ʺnatural lawsʺ, and conveys the concern of understanding the relationships between humans and their work environment....

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  • René Descartes gives few philosophical arguments to directly support his rejection of forms in favor of mechanisms . Moreover, the scattered reasons he offers in his corpus are cryptic and hard to unpack. Hence I will draw on Descartes’ intellectual context to reconstruct his reasoning and shed light on his historic elimination of Scholastic Aristotelian substantial forms from the physical world.

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  • An early definition of mathematics in terms of logic was Benjamin Peirce's "the science that draws necessary conclusions" (1870).[24] In the Principia Mathematica, Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead advanced the philosophical program known as logicism, and attempted to prove that all mathematical concepts, statements, and principles can be defined and proven entirely in terms of symbolic logic. A logicist definition of mathematics is Russell's "All Mathematics is Symbolic Logic" (1903)

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  • Well-being is more than the absence of mental illness. One review of the literature (Ryan & Deci, 2001) describes it as ‘optimal psychological functioning and experience’. Precisely what constitutes optimal experience has been the subject of philosophical debate since the roots of the hedonic tradition in the 4th century BC when it was proposed that the goal of life was to experience the maximum amount of pleasure.

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  • TheMIT Press series on Economic Learning and Social Evolution reflects the continuing interest in the dynamics of human interaction. This issue has provided a broad community of economists, psychologists, biolo- gists, anthropologists, mathematicians, philosophers, and others, with a sense of common purpose so strong that traditional interdisciplinary boundaries havemelted away.We reject the outmoded notion thatwhat happens away from equilibrium can safelly be ignored, but think it no longer adequate to speak in vague terms of bounded rationality and spontaneous order.

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  • Provided that the increased productive effi ciency of the cor- poration leads to growth in overall societal income and wealth, and that the income and wealth is fairly distributed within the society, it should then benefi t all or most members of the society in the long run. Th e high executive salary may then be justifi ed in consequentialist terms by being in the long term interests of all members of the society. Philosophically economic effi ciency as a justifi cation for executive salaries is, in terms of distributive justice, a form of incentive theory,...

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  • This paper describes an on-going project concerning with an ontological lexical resource based on the abundant conceptual information grounded on Chinese characters. The ultimate goal of this project is set to construct a cognitively sound and computationally effective character-grounded machine-understandable resource. Philosophically, Chinese ideogram has its ontological status, but its applicability to the NLP task has not been expressed explicitly in terms of language resource.

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  • Methodological reductionism is a driving force of scientific thinking. Unlike the more controversial, and philosophically dubious, connotations of the term, methodological reductionism embodies a general principle of intellectual parsimony. It does not establish debatable hierarchies among pedagogically distinct scientific areas, it does not seek to identify equally controversial ultimate constituents of reality. Instead, it attempts the consolidation of a collection of more or less intuitively connected items into a more general item, of which they become refinements or specializations.

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