In his Logic Hegel has endeavored to incorporate the essential principles
of philosophy which in the development of the worlds thought
have forced themselves upon men’s convictions, and have been attested
by a general consensus of opinion. An insight into the Hegelian system
means, therefore, a comprehensive and appreciative grasp of the history
of philosophy in the salient features of its progress.
The words we use to communicate every day are important in every aspect of our lives. From relaxing,
to working, to studying, to taking tests, we use words to share with others how we feel, what we
think, and why we think that way.Without words, it is difficult to express our ideas to the rest of the
world. The more words we know—the larger our vocabulary—the more clearly we can communicate with others.
Our vocabularies reveal our knowledge to the world; therefore, a person with a large vocabulary has the advantage
To discuss embryological thought in seventeenth-century England is to discuss the main currents in
embryological thought at a time when those currents were both numerous and shifting. Like every other
period, the seventeenth century was one of transition. It was an era of explosive growth in scientific ideas and
techniques, suffused with a creative urge engendered by new philosophical insights and the excitement of
This book contains the substance, and for the most part the words, of a course of public lectures delivered
during the first three months of 1919. The original division into lectures has been dropped, the matter being
more conveniently redivided into chapters.
The audience to whom the lectures were delivered was composed of members of the general public, and not
only of students. For the most part they possessed no previous knowledge of philosophy.
A variety of scientific disciplines have set as their task explaining mental activities, recognizing that in some way these activities depend upon our brain. But, until recently, the opportunities to conduct experiments directly on our brains were limited. As a result, research efforts were split between disciplines such as cognitive psychology, linguistics, and artificial intelligence that investigated behavior, while disciplines such as neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and genetics experimented on the brains of non-human animals.
This book attempts two interrelated tasks. The fi rst is to arrive at an understanding
of practical knowledge and how expertise is related to it. The
second is to show how such an understanding informs the various educational
tasks of developing expertise.
In physics, particles that cannot be broken down into any other particles are called elementary particles. The term elementary particles also is used more loosely to include some subatomic particles that are composed of other particles. Particles that cannot be broken further are sometimes called fundamental particles to avoid confusion. These fundamental particles provide the basic units that make up all matter and energy in the universe. Scientists and philosophers have sought to identify and study elementary particles since ancient times. ...
The phenomenon of globalization has captured the popular imagination in
the last decade or so. This is reflected in numerous books published on this
topic from various academic disciplines and across philosophical discourses.
In discussing the various facets of globalization, almost all discourses consider
the role of business and/or multinational corporations to be very salient
in either enhancing this phenomenon or managing the process of globalization.
The term "liberalism," from the Latin "liber" meaning "free," referred originally
to the philosophy of freedom. It still retained this meaning in Europe when this
book was written (1927) so that readers who opened its covers expected an analysis
of the freedom philosophy of classical liberalism. Unfortunately, however, in recent
decades, "liberalism" has come to mean something very different. The word has
been taken over, especially in the United States, by philosophical socialists and used
by them to refer to their government intervention and "welfare state" programs.
Ergonomics, also known as Human Factors, is a recent scientific discipline, curiously
with a well‐defined and official date and place of birth, July 12, 1949, in England.
However the term Ergonomics, was proposed in 1857, by the Polish philosopher and
naturalist Wojciech Jastrzebowski and fell into oblivion for nearly a century. The word
Ergonomics results from joining the Greek words ergon meaning ʺworkʺ and nomos
meaning ʺnatural lawsʺ, and conveys the concern of understanding the relationships
between humans and their work environment....
René Descartes gives few philosophical arguments to directly support
his rejection of forms in favor of mechanisms . Moreover, the scattered
reasons he offers in his corpus are cryptic and hard to unpack. Hence I
will draw on Descartes’ intellectual context to reconstruct his reasoning
and shed light on his historic elimination of Scholastic Aristotelian
substantial forms from the physical world.
An early definition of mathematics in terms of logic was Benjamin Peirce's "the science that draws necessary conclusions" (1870). In the Principia Mathematica, Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead advanced the philosophical program known as logicism, and attempted to prove that all mathematical concepts, statements, and principles can be defined and proven entirely in terms of symbolic logic. A logicist definition of mathematics is Russell's "All Mathematics is Symbolic Logic" (1903)
Well-being is more than the absence of mental illness. One review of the literature (Ryan &
Deci, 2001) describes it as ‘optimal psychological functioning and experience’. Precisely what
constitutes optimal experience has been the subject of philosophical debate since the roots of
the hedonic tradition in the 4th century BC when it was proposed that the goal of life was to
experience the maximum amount of pleasure.
TheMIT Press series on Economic Learning and Social Evolution reﬂects
the continuing interest in the dynamics of human interaction. This issue
has provided a broad community of economists, psychologists, biolo-
gists, anthropologists, mathematicians, philosophers, and others, with
a sense of common purpose so strong that traditional interdisciplinary
boundaries havemelted away.We reject the outmoded notion thatwhat
happens away from equilibrium can safelly be ignored, but think it no
longer adequate to speak in vague terms of bounded rationality and
Provided that the increased productive eﬃ ciency of the cor-
poration leads to growth in overall societal income and wealth,
and that the income and wealth is fairly distributed within the
society, it should then beneﬁ t all or most members of the society
in the long run. Th e high executive salary may then be justiﬁ ed
in consequentialist terms by being in the long term interests of
all members of the society. Philosophically economic eﬃ ciency
as a justiﬁ cation for executive salaries is, in terms of distributive
justice, a form of incentive theory,...
This paper describes an on-going project concerning with an ontological lexical resource based on the abundant conceptual information grounded on Chinese characters. The ultimate goal of this project is set to construct a cognitively sound and computationally effective character-grounded machine-understandable resource. Philosophically, Chinese ideogram has its ontological status, but its applicability to the NLP task has not been expressed explicitly in terms of language resource.
Methodological reductionism is a driving force of scientific thinking. Unlike the
more controversial, and philosophically dubious, connotations of the term, methodological
reductionism embodies a general principle of intellectual parsimony. It does
not establish debatable hierarchies among pedagogically distinct scientific areas, it
does not seek to identify equally controversial ultimate constituents of reality. Instead,
it attempts the consolidation of a collection of more or less intuitively connected
items into a more general item, of which they become refinements or specializations.