Philosophical theories

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  • Tài liệu sinh học tiếng Anh: The theory of evolution has been around for some 150 years, and has deeply influenced people's views of the world. The theory maintains that life came about by chance, by itself, and through natural conditions. However, evolution is not supported by any scientific evidence. It is a dogma that materialist scientists and philosophers are trying to impose on society under a scientific mask.

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  • A philosophical study of morality is very different from a sociological or anthropological study, or a study from the perspective of biology or psychology. One important difference is that in moral philosophy we do not distance ourselves from our own moral views in the way we would if we were engaged in a study of one of these other kinds. We do not take the fact that people, including ourselves, have moral views as merely a datum to be explained.

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  • This valuable reference introduces undergraduate and post-graduate students to the main problems and positions of philosophical logic. Elements include crucial figures, positions, terminology, and debates within philosophical logic as well as issues that pertain to related, overlapping disciplines, such as set theory and the philosophy of mathematics. Entries are extensively cross-referenced for identification within the context of wider debates.

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  • This is the most accessible architectural theory book that exists. Korydon Smith presents each common architectural subject—such as tectonics, use, and site—as though it were a conversation across history between theorists by providing you with the original text, a reflective text, and a philosophical text. He also introduces each chapter by highlighting key ideas and asking you a set of reflective questions so that you can hone your own theory, which is essential to both your success in the studio and your adaptability in the profession.

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  • "It's the animal in us," we often hear when we've been bad. But why not when we're good? Primates and Philosophers tackles this question by exploring the biological foundations of one of humanity's most valued traits: morality. In this provocative book, primatologist Frans de Waal argues that modern-day evolutionary biology takes far too dim a view of the natural world, emphasizing our "selfish" genes. Science has thus exacerbated our reciprocal habits of blaming nature when we act badly and labeling the good things we do as "humane.

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  • Information Theory, Evolution, and the Origin of Life presents a timely introduction to the use of information theory and coding theory in molecular biology. The genetical information system, because it is linear and digital, resembles the algorithmic language of computers. George Gamow pointed out that the application of Shannon’s information theory breaks genetics and molecular biology out of the descriptive mode into the quantitative mode, and Dr. Yockey develops this theme, discussing how information theory and coding theory can be applied to molecular biology....

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  • Risk has become one of the main topics in fields as diverse as engineering, medicine, and economics, and it is also studied by social scientists, psychologists, and legal scholars. But the topic of risk also leads to more fundamental questions such as:What is risk?What can decision theory contribute to the analysis of risk? What does the human perception of risk mean for society? How should we judge whether a risk is morally acceptable or not? Over the last couple of decades, questions like these have attracted interest from philosophers and other scholars into risk theory.

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  • This book offers the perspective that nursing theory is essentially connected with nursing practice, research, education, and development. Nursing theories, regardless of complexity or abstraction, reflect nursing and are used by nurses to frame their thinking, action, and being in the world. As guides for nursing endeavors, nursing theories are practical in nature and facilitate communication with those being nursed as well as with colleagues, students, and persons practicing in related health and illness services.

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  • It is with great pleasure that we are presenting to the community the second edition of this axtraordinary handbook. It has been over 15 years since the publication of the first edition and there have been great changes in the landscape of philosophical logic since then.

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  • The main concern of this book is scepticism about moral responsibility. By “moral responsibility” I understand that property of human agents by virtue of which they truly and objectively deserve moral praise or blame for some of their actions. We are naturally non-sceptical about this property. Even philosophical sceptics tend to praise or blame people spontaneously for some of their actions, though they may try to recoil from these spontaneous reactions after reminding themselves of their own reflectively acquired scepticism....

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  • Attachment theory as developed by John Bowlby has since the 1960s stimulated theorizing about the normal and psychopathological development of children, women and men. In an unprecedented way it demonstrated how psychological functioning depends on adequate emphatic interaction from the very beginning of life.

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  • Methodological philosophy of science concerns itself, among other things, with issues about the nature of scientific theories, of scientific explanation, and of intertheoretic reduction. Philosophers of science frequently have attempted to identify and "rationally reconstruct" distinct types of reasoning employed by scientists as they go about their business.

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  • Before entering upon the subject-matter of these new memoirs, I must explain an hypothesis which will undoubtedly seem strange, but in the absence of which it is impossible for me to proceed intelligibly: I mean the hypothesis of a God. To suppose God, it will be said, is to deny him. Why do you not affirm him? Is it my fault if belief in Divinity has become a suspected opinion; if the bare suspicion of a Supreme Being is already noted as evidence of a weak mind; and if, of all philosophical Utopias, this is the only one which...

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  • Methodological reductionism is a driving force of scientific thinking. Unlike the more controversial, and philosophically dubious, connotations of the term, methodological reductionism embodies a general principle of intellectual parsimony. It does not establish debatable hierarchies among pedagogically distinct scientific areas, it does not seek to identify equally controversial ultimate constituents of reality. Instead, it attempts the consolidation of a collection of more or less intuitively connected items into a more general item, of which they become refinements or specializations.

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  • This book first appeared in 1925. The basic principles of relativity have not changed since then, but both the theory and its applications have been much extended, and some revision has been necessary for the second and subsequent editions. For the second and third editions I carried out these revisions with Bertrand Russell's approval. The revisions for this fourth edition are entirely my responsibility.

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  • In my professional life I have been asked many times the simple question: What is transpersonal psychology, counselling or psychotherapy? The answer is straightforward: it is a broad transcultural theory of human nature that posits that human beings are more than physical and psychological beings, with some form of spirituality being a reasonable bet. Oh, and by the way, it is also a discrete field of study that could be conceived as having had about 40 years of academic recognition.

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  • The first edition of Wittgenstein: Understanding and Meaning was written between 1976 and 1979. Gordon Baker and I intended it to be a comprehensive commentary on §§1–184 of Wittgenstein’s masterwork that would serve as a reference work for scholars intent upon a close study of the text. The essays attempted to give overviews of Wittgenstein’s treatment of specific themes.

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  • Peter Singer made animal rights an international concern in 1975 when he published Animal Liberation, an instant classic depicting the shocking and widespread abuse of animals. Thirty years later, Singer reflects upon changes and new challenges by bringing together specially commissioned essays by philosophers and activists, chronicling current thoughts on animal suffering, reassessing the question of personhood, and highlighting tales of effective advocacy.

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  • Michel Eyquem De Montaigne, the founder of the modern Essay, was born February 28, 1533, at the chateau of Montaigne in Pirigord. He came of a family of wealthy merchants of Bordeaux, and was educated at the College de Guyenne, where he had among his teachers the great Scottish Latinist, George Buchanan. Later he studied law, and held various public offices; but at the age of thirty-eight he retired to his estates, where he lived apart from the civil wars of the time, and devoted himself to study and thought. While he was traveling in Germany and Italy, in 1580-81, he was elected mayor of...

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  • T his collection was not difficult to assemble. Within months of its publication, Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson's Democracy and Disagreement received a most unusual level of scholarly attention. Symposia on the book were organized at a number of scholarly meetings, including the annual conventions of the American Political Science Association, the Association for Practical and Professional Ethics, and the Pacific Division of the American Philosophical Association.

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