Metals are used as biomaterials due to their excellent electrical and thermal conductivity and mechanical
properties. Since some electrons are independent in metals, they can quickly transfer an electric charge and
thermal energy. The mobile free electrons act as the binding force to hold the positive metal ions together.
This attraction is strong, as evidenced by the closely packed atomic arrangement resulting in high specific
gravity and high melting points of most metals.
Since their first introduction, metallic biomaterials have always been designed to
be corrosion resistant. For decades, this paradigm has become the mainframe of
the biomaterials world. It has been cited in thousands of scientific papers and
taught in hundreds of courses of materials for biomedical devices. It has also been
followed by industries in developing millions of medical devices until today.
Nowadays, with the advent of tissue engineering, biomaterials are envisaged to
actively interact with the body.
This epigraph is very correct for the Russian Federation today because the average
lifespan of Russian men in this country is 57 years (Russian women are living on ten years
more). It is statistical data. Russian scientists are an exception. Particularly, the majority of
contributors of this volume are older then 60 and the editor of volume is older then 75.
Abstract A new method is presented for improving the performance of red mud as a hydrogenation catalyst (a residue from the production of alumina by the Bayer process that contains iron oxides), based on the method developed by K.C. Pratt and V. Christoverson, Fuel 61 (1982) 460. The activation method consists essentially in dissolving red mud in a mixture of aqueous hydrochloric and phosphoric acids, boiling the resulting solution, adding aqueous ammonia until pH8, and ®ltering, washing, drying and calcining the resulting precipitate. ...
In later eras, new materials have been closely associated with radical change. The development of
paper was as important as the printing press in revolutionising communications. The introduction
of gunpowder into Europe transformed warfare. In more modern times, gas lighting only became
demonstrably superior to oil and candles with the introduction of the gas mantle, composed of
novel materials such as thorium and cerium oxides. A hundred years ago electric filament lamps
were made possible by other novel and fairly unusual materials, osmium and tungsten.