Photochemical reaction

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  • A photopolymer is a polymer that changes its properties when exposed to light, often in the ultraviolet frequency of the electromagnetic spectrum.Be bonds that link one polymer chain to another. Can be formed by chemical reactions that are initiated by radiation. Change physical properties of photopolymers.

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  • his book is served as a reference text to meet the needs of advanced scientists and research engineers who seek for their own computational fluid dynamics (CFD) skills to solve a variety of fluid flow problems. Key Features: - Flow Modeling in Sedimentation Tank, - Greenhouse Environment, - Hypersonic Aerodynamics, - Cooling Systems Design, - Photochemical Reaction Engineering, - Atmospheric Reentry Problem, - Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI), - Atomization, - Hydraulic Component Design, - Air Conditioning System, - Industrial Applications of CFD...

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  • Ozone (O3) is a secondary pollutant formed in the atmosphere throughout a complex non-linear chemical reaction involving two classes of precursors: the reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the presence of sunlight. The rapid urbanization and industrialization in Vietnam have brought about high air pollutant emissions including the O3 precursors. Ground level O3 may already be high in large cities like Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. The O3 episode is very important for scene of view of photochemical smog in Hanoi.

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  • Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg protein) of Escherichia coliis a DNA repair enzyme that excises oxi-dized purine bases, most notably the mutagenic 7-hydro-8-oxoguanine, from damaged DNA. In order to identify specific contacts between nucleobases of DNA and amino acids from theE. coliFpg protein, photochemical cross-linking was employed using new reactive DNA duplexes containing 5-[4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]phe-nyl]-2¢-deoxyuridine dU* residues near the 7-hydro-8-oxoguanosine (oxoG) lesion. ...

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  • NO2 is a product of combustion. It is a precursor to ground-level ozone formation through photochemical reactions involving VOCs. NO2 causes a brown colour in the atmosphere at elevated concentrations. It reacts in the atmosphere with ammonia to form fine particulates, which reduce visibility and increase PM2.5 concentrations (Levelton Engineering Limited, 2000). NO2 irritates the mucous membranes in the respiratory tract.

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  • Unlike stratospheric ozone that protects life on earth, tropospheric ozone is highly toxic and is the main pollutant of the atmosphere of industrialized countries and cities. Its precursors are emanated from industrial activities and traffic. Generated by lightning, photochemical reactions or with free radicals, it has a density of 1.66 times greater than air and is maintained close to the ground. It decomposes easily, generating free radicals with oxidizing power. The main primary pollutants leading to ozone formation are nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and methane.

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  • We have investigated mutants of phytochrome Cph1 from the cyanobacter-ium SynechocystisPCC6803 in order to study chromophore–protein inter-actions. Cph1D2, the 514-residue N-terminal sensor module produced as a recombinant His6-tagged apoprotein in Escherichia coli, autoassembles in vitro to form a holoprotein photochemically indistinguishable from the full-length product.

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  • The reactions of the flavin semiquinone generated by laser-induced stepwise two-photon excitation of reduced flavin have been studied previously (El Hanine-Lmoumene C & Lindqvist L. (1997) Photochem Photobiol66, 591–595) using time-resolved spectroscopy. In the present work, we have used the same experimental procedure to study the flavin semiquinone in rat kidney long-chain hydroxy acid oxidase and in the flavodehydrogenase domain of flavocytochrome b2 FDH

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  • We developed the synthesis of the caged oxygen donor (l-peroxo)(l-hydroxo)bis[bis(bipyridyl)cobalt(III)] complex (HPBC) as nitrate salt,which has,compared with the perchlorate-form described previously [MacArthur,R., Sucheta,A.,Chong,F.F. & Einarsdottir,O¨ . (1995) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 92,8105–8109],greatly enhanced solubility. Now,the quantum efficiency of the photolytical release of dioxygenwas determined tobe 0.4 per photon at a laser wavelength of 308 nm,which was used to observe biological reactions....

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  • Heterocyclic Chemistry represents a vast and important area of research which is of interest to a wide spectrum of chemists. This is amply documented by the fact that various journals, societies, and interest groups have sprung up entirely devoted to the pursuit of heterocyclic chemistry. Surprisingly though, there exists to our knowledge no single periodical review alerting the reader on an annual basis to important developments of the subject. We have now been able to persuade...

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  • THE CONVERSION OF SOLAR ENERGY to the chemical energy of organic compounds is a complex process that includes electron transport and photosynthetic carbon metabolism (see Chapters 7 and 8). Earlier discussions of the photochemical and biochemical reactions of photosynthesis should not overshadow the fact that, under natural conditions, the photosynthetic process takes place in intact organisms that are continuously responding to internal and external changes. This chapter addresses some of the photosynthetic responses of the intact leaf to its environment....

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  • Modern urban Air Pollution Stagnant air Continuing emissions "summer" (photochemical) smog: NO, NO2, CxHy, UV-rad: == O3 (reactions worked out on blackboard) Winter (cold weather) smog: fine or ultra-fine particles == health effects Mixture is different in different cities Traffic important source Toxicological mechanism still unknown Health effects even at low concentrations (from 40 mg/m3?)

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  • Modern-day smog is often referred to as ‘photochemical’ smog. It is produced by complex, sunlight-stimulated chemical reactions among the components of automobile exhaust. It is responsible for much of today's air pollution in cities such as Los Angeles and Denver. Carbon monoxide from incomplete combustion of automobile engines, particulate matter and NOx all react to generate the noxious brown haze. An estimated 80% of smog today arises from vehicle exhausts. Not only does smog smell bad and obstructs vision, but both short-term and long-term exposure to it may be hazardous.

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  • A small part of the absorbed light energy in the photosynthesis process is lost during the migration from the pigment antenna to the reaction centers and are dissipated by a number of non-photochemical processes, including heat, and re-emission of a small but easily detectable amount (2-5% in vivo) of the absorbed radiation. This re-emission occurs at longer wavelengths in the red and far-red spectral regions and is termed as Chlorophyll Fluorescence (ChlF) (Shreiber, 1983; Backer & Bradbury, 1981)....

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