Physiological activities

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  • The hypothalamic neuropeptides modulate physiological activity via G pro-tein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a 60 amino acid neuropeptide that was originally isolated from porcine hypo-thalamus using a binding assay for galanin receptors, which belong to the GPCR family.

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  • Despite my many years of research and teaching in platelet physiology and pharmacology at the University of Minnesota, I am often confronted with conflicting opinions as to the relevance of nonnucleated platelets in human health and disease. It is fascinating to think that how cells with no apparent nucleus, have such a towering impact on concepts, dealing with often overlapping physiological (i.e. hemostasis, wound healing, etc.) and pathophysiological (i.e. thrombosis, stroke, atherosclerosis, wound healing, diabetes, inflammation and cancer) components.

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  • Mast cells express the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FceRI) and are key players in type I hypersensitivity reactions. They are critically involved in the development of allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and systemic anaphy-laxis, however, they also regulate normal physiological processes that link innate and adaptive immune responses.

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  • Dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) is a protein kinase with diverse functions in neuronal development and adult brain physiology. Higher than normal levels of DYRK1A are associ-ated with the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases and have been impli-cated in some neurobiological alterations of Down syndrome, such as mental retardation.

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  • The soluble, cytoplasmic NAD + -reducing [NiFe]-hydro-genase fromRalstonia eutrophais aheterotetrameric enzyme (HoxFUYH) and contains two FMN groups. The purified oxidized enzyme is inactive in the H2-NAD + reaction, but can be activated by catalytic amounts of NADH. It was discovered that one of the FMN groups (FMN-a) is selec-tively released upon prolonged reduction of the enzyme with NADH. During this process, the enzyme maintained its tetrameric form, with one FMN group (FMN-b) firmly bound, but it lost its physiological activity – the reduction of NAD + by H2. ...

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  • Plants inhabiting high alpine and nival zones are considered as living in an extreme environment. Extreme environments have been attractive for explorers for centuries, and nowadays they also attract tourists. Fortunately biological science is becoming increasingly aware that these remote habitats provide challenging questions that will help to understand the limits of life functions.

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  • ADH1 and ADH4 are the major alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) in ethanol and retinol oxidation. ADH activity and protein expression were investigated in rat gastrointestinal tissuehomogenates by enzymatic andWesternblot analyses. In addition, sections of adult rat gastrointestinal tract were examined byin situ hybridization and immunohistochem-istry.ADH1andADH4weredetectedalong thewhole tract, changing their localization and relative content as a function of the area studied.

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  • On chemokine stimulation, leucocytes produce and secrete proteolytic enzymes for innate immunedefencemechanisms. Some of these proteasesmodify the biological activity of the chemokines. For instance, neutrophils secrete gelatinase B (matrix metalloproteinase-9, MMP-9) and neutrophil col-lagenase (MMP-8) after stimulation with interleukin-8/ CXCL8 (IL-8). Gelatinase B cleaves and potentiates IL-8, generating a positive feedback.

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  • Chapter 3 - Cells: The living units (part b). The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Membrane transport: active processes, active transport, primary active transport, secondary active transport, vesicular transport, endocytosis and transcytosis,...and other contents.

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  • Chapter 13 - The peripheral nervous system and reflex activity (part b). This chapter define ganglion and indicate the general body location of ganglia, describe the general structure of a nerve, follow the process of nerve regeneration, name the 12 pairs of cranial nerves, indicate the body region and structures innervated by each.

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  • The peripheral nervous system and reflex activity (part c) provides knowledge of spinal nerves. The goal is for you to learn: Describe the formation of a spinal nerve and the general distribution of its rami; define plexus, name the major plexuses and describe the distribution and function of the peripheral nerves arising from each plexus.

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  • Chapter 13 (part d) provides knowledge of motor endings and motor activity. In this chapter, students will be able to compare and contrast the motor endings of somatic and autonomic nerve fibers, outline the three levels of the motor hierarchy, compare the roles of the cerebellum and basal nuclei in controlling motor activity.

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  • Chapter 15 - The special senses (part c) provides knowledge of the chemical senses: taste and smell. This chapter focus describe the location, structure, and afferent pathways of taste and smell receptors, and explain how these receptors are activated.

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  • Photosynthesis of micro algae is often inhibited by salt stress (Kirst, 1990). Such an inhibition may be explained by a decrease in PSII activity. Indeed, in the green microalgae, salt stress inhibits PSII activity in Dunaliella tertiolecta and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that is associated with a state-2 transition (Gilmour et al., 1985, Endo et al., 1995). In the cyanobacteria, it has been suggested that the decreased PSII activity in salt-stressed cells is associated with the state-2 transition (Schubert et al., 1993; Schubert and Hagemann, 1990).

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  • Controlling the impact of stress on brewing biomass, predicting yeast activity and ensuring consistent fermentation performance through successive fermentations remain areas of active interest for the brewing industry. To be able to control and perhaps even manipulate yeast activity, it is necessary to identify factors that affect its functionality during fermentation. Genetic stability and integrity are crucial to maintaining predictable performance.

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  • A global research community of scientists is teasing out the biochemical mechanisms that regulate normal cellular physiology in a variety of organisms. Much of current research aims to understand the network of molecular reactions that regulate cellular homeostasis, and to learn what allows cells to sense stress and activate appropriate biochemical responses.

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  • A wealth of information has accumulated on the subject of hypertension, and the number of publications dedicated to topics in this field of study continues to increase. It has become nearly impossible for medical professionals to absorb all of the diverse information and to gather the information into a coherent theoretical concept and practical approach to treating the disease, even for those of us who are actively involved in this research specialty on a daily basis.

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  • The era of pharmacology, the science concerned with the understanding of drug action, began only about 150 years ago when Rudolf Buchheim established the first pharmacological laboratory in Dorpat (now, Tartu, Estonia). Since then, pharmacology has always been a lively discipline with “open borders”, reaching out not only to other life sciences such as physiology, biochemistry, cell biology and clinical medicine, but also to chemistry and physics.

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  • The stomach is located in the epigastrium and the main physiological function of stomach is reservoir of food and drink, then food and drink are fermenting and grinding by action of the stomach so disturbance of these functions of the stomach will cause poor appetite, capacity for only small amount of food, and pain in the epigastric region. Of course, only in cooperation with the spleen's function digesting and transforming food and drink can be performed successfully by the stomach's function of receiving, to receive, digest and transform the food and drink.

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