Physiological mechanics

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  • THE title of the present work is in itself a sufficiently clear indication of the contents. In it, the attempt is made to show the connexion between two sciences whose subject−matters are closely interrelated, but which have, for the most part, followed wholly divergent paths. Physiology and psychology cover, between them, the field of vital phenomena; they deal with the facts of life at large, and in particular with the facts of human life.

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  • Physiology plays a major role in the scientific foundation of medicine and other subjects related to human health and physical performance. Pharmacology is the science which deals with the effects of drugs on living systems and their use in the treatment of disease. This book is designed to enhance students’ understanding of physiology and pharmacology via a series of case studies involving human disease and its treatment. Traditional university teaching methods focus on informing students in terms of physiological and pharmacological theory.

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  • Mechanisms of salt tolerance in halophytes: can crop plants resistance to salinity be improved? High concentrations of sodium are toxic to most plant species, making soil salinity a major abiotic stress in plant productivity world wide. Many crop species, which countless people rely for survival, are negatively affected.

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  • Biomedical engineering is a discipline that is multidisciplinary by definition. The days when medicine was left to the physicians, and engineering was left to the engineers, seem to have passed us by. I have searched for an undergraduate/graduate level biomedical fluid mechanics textbook since I began teaching at Rose-Hulman in 1987. I looked for, but never found, a book that combined the physiology of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems with engineering of fluid mechanics and hematology to my satisfaction, so I agreed to write a monograph.

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  • The muscular system (part a), the following will be discussed in this chapter: Skeletal muscles: functional groups, naming skeletal muscles, muscle mechanics: arrangement of fascicles, muscle mechanics: lever systems, classes of lever systems,...

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  • The main contents of chapter 23 part a include all of the following: Digestive system, digestive processes, GI tract regulatory mechanisms, esophagus, esophagus, digestive processes: mouth, deglutition, stomach: gross anatomy, stomach: microscopic anatomy,...

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  • The following will be discussed in this chapter: Hormonal regulation of male reproductive function, hpg axis, mechanism and effects of testosterone activity, male secondary sex characteristics, female reproductive anatomy,...

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  • We live in the age of biology—the human and many other organisms’ genomes have been sequenced and we are starting to understand the function of the metabolic machinery responsible for life on our planet. Thousands of new genes have been discovered, many of these coding for enzymes of yet unknown function. Understanding the kinetic behavior of an enzyme provides clues to its possible physiological role. From a biotechnological point of view, knowledge of the catalytic properties of an enzyme is required for the design of immobilized enzyme-based industrial processes.

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  • Plant response to reduced water availability and other abiotic stress (e.g. metals) have been analysed through changes in water absorption and transport mechanisms and also by molecular and genetic approach. A relatively new aspects of fruit nutrition are presented in order to provide the basis for the improvement of some fruit quality traits. The involvement of hormones, nutritional and proteomic plant profiles together with some structure/function of sexual components have also been addressed.

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  • The purpose of this book remains what it was in the first seven editions: to present the fundamental principles and facts of human physiology in a format that is suitable for undergraduate students, regardless of academic backgrounds or fields of study: liberal arts, biology, nursing, pharmacy, or other allied health professions.

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  • Steroids - From Physiology to Clinical Medicine covers contemporary basic science on steroids research, along with steroids practical application in clinical medicine. We start by describing physiological and pathophysiological roles of steroids, with reference to production and action of gonadal steroids, role of steroid sulfonation, sex specific and steroids-dependent mechanism of hippocampal function, and the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases for the modulation of tissue glucocorticoid availability.

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  • A global research community of scientists is teasing out the biochemical mechanisms that regulate normal cellular physiology in a variety of organisms. Much of current research aims to understand the network of molecular reactions that regulate cellular homeostasis, and to learn what allows cells to sense stress and activate appropriate biochemical responses.

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  • During the last three decades, important advances have been made in the available treatments for the loss of skeletal tissue as a result of trauma or disease. The application of large skeletal allografts and total joint replacement have become successful and reproducible treatment options. Unfortunately there still is a significant incidence of failure because of mechanical or biological complications.

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  • The era of pharmacology, the science concerned with the understanding of drug action, began only about 150 years ago when Rudolf Buchheim established the first pharmacological laboratory in Dorpat (now, Tartu, Estonia). Since then, pharmacology has always been a lively discipline with “open borders”, reaching out not only to other life sciences such as physiology, biochemistry, cell biology and clinical medicine, but also to chemistry and physics.

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  • For writers of technical books, there can be no better piece of advice. Around the time of writing the first edition – about a decade ago – there were very few monographs on this subject: today, there are possibly no less than 20. Based on critical inputs, this edition stands thoroughly revamped. New chapters on ventilator waveforms, airway humidification, and aerosol therapy in the ICU now find a place. Novel software-based modes of ventilation have been included. Ventilator-associated pneumonia has been separated into a new chapter.

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  • The advances in ultra-large-scale integration (ULSI) technology mainly have been based on downscaling of the minimum feature size of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistors. The limit of scaling is approaching and there are unsolved problems such as the number of electrons in the device’s active region. If this number is reduced to less than 10 electrons (or holes), quantum fluctuation errors will occur and the gate insulator thickness will become too small to block quantum mechanical tunneling, which may result in unacceptably large leakage currents....

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  • Nutritional Biochemistry takes a scientific approach to nutrition. It covers not just "whats"--nutritional requirements--but why they are required for human health, by describing their function at the cellular and molecular level. Each case study either leads to a subsequent discovery or enables an understanding of the physiological mechanisms of action of various nutrition-related processes. The text is "picture-oriented" and the commentary is directed towards explaining graphs, figures, and tables. ...

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  • Research and development in bioengineering and medical technology, conducted during recent decades, have led to spectacular progress in clinical medicine. These achievements have triggered an enormous increase in the number of courses offered in the areas of bioengineering, clinical technology and medical informatics; nowadays, most major universities offer curricula oriented towards these fields. The majority of participants however come from engineering backgrounds and so modules dealing with basic biological and medical sciences have been included.

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  • The determination of enzyme AChE continues to be widely used to measure the exposure to OF and C, however, interpretations of results are highly variable, since there are genetic and physiological causes as well as associated pathologies, which can decrease the levels of this enzyme (Varona et al, 2007).

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  • Nature has created numerous elegant living systems, including the human, based on the hierarchical functional units—molecule, cell, tissue, and organ. A living system develops through a long evolutionary process, during which the system undergoes genotypic and phenotypic changes in response to environmental simuli.

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