Investor base: participation by different investors in the government bond market has grown
more diversified. Of the various actors in this market, banks tend to invest in relatively
shorter term bonds to match their short-term liability. Pension funds and insurance
companies prefer hedging long-term inflation risks by investing more in inflation linked
bonds. Non-residents concentrate their direct exposure to fixed rate instruments, but with
maturity less than 3 years.
This is a dangerous combination. The persistence and mobility of POPs means that they
are literally everywhere in the world, even in the Arctic,Antarctica, and remote Pacific islands.
Their attraction to fatty tissue, known as "bioaccumulation", means that even though a
poison is first dispersed widely and thinly it gradually starts to concentrate as organisms
consume other organisms as they move up the food chain.
We have built a “production” system and an advanced research prototype. The production
system uses the commercial Java Message Service (SonicMQ) and has been used very
successfully to build a synchronous collaboration environment applied to distance education.
The publish/subscribe mechanism is powerful but this comes at some performance cost
and so it is important that it satisﬁes the reasonably stringent constraints of synchronous
While Nesjar created the sculpture on the green in front of The Art
Museum, he conducted a unique, outdoor seminar. The process
involved building wooden forms to establish the basic shapes of the
columnar pedestal and then a similar structure for the head itself. After
completion of the wooden form, a mixture of crushed stone (imported
from Norway) and iron tie-rods was packed within, and liquid concrete
was injected under pressure from the base up. Nesjar later sandblasted
the outer skin to expose the colorful aggregate.
Controlled oxidation is increasingly being practiced using solid peroxides, pH
modifiers, and catalysts that promote the generation of free radicals. This new
approach moderates the rate of dissolution and peroxide generation, which in turn
controls that rate of reaction between peroxide and the petroleum contaminants.
The use of slurried peroxides creates the opportunity to release oxidants and
oxygen over a longer period, which can promote subsequent aerobic remediation.
The main objective of this work is to develop an economically viable process
for producing papermaking fibres of adequate quality and generating energy
from wheat straw. Wheat straw was selected as the raw material since wheat is
cultivated and available worldwide (Curtis 2002) and only a minor part of the
straw is used for energy production or animal feed. One of the primary aims in
this work is to find ways to store the raw material chemically between the
harvesting periods and examine the effects on pulping and pulp properties (Paper
IV). In addition, the aim of this work is...
The sensory networks that transduce information starting with the capture of a photon into
a suite of downstream responses are well known. Historically these pigments were
postulated to control various aspects of plant growth and development, particularly
germination, phototropic movements and the transition between vegetative and
reproductive growth. Long before the genes and proteins were identified and characterized,
a tremendous body of work produced evidence of their activities and effects on physiology.
Light quality effects on germination were examined by Lewis H.
The impact of human activities on the environment – and on climate change in particular – are issues
of growing concern confronting life on Earth. At the same time, information and communication
technologies (ICTs) are being rapidly deployed around the world. Although ICTs require energy
resources, they also offer a number of opportunities to advance global environmental research,
planning and action. This includes monitoring and protecting the environment as well as mitigation of
and adaptation to climate change.
The manufacturing sector has always had strong linkages with the agricultural sector, with agriculture sourcing from it over half of intermediate goods, such as insecticides, stock feeds, and fertilizer, while nearly half of agricultural produce is supplied to the manufacturing sector. The performance of the two sectors has historically been closely correlated. The collapse of agricultural activities associated with the implementation of the fast track land reform program by the Government had a devastating impact on the manufacturing sector in the past decade.
Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is the discount rate at which the Present
Value of future cash flows equals the initial capital invested (i.e. the discount rate at which the
Net Present Value of a series of cash flows equals 0) expressed as a percentage.
An IRR less than your targeted rate of return suggests you are paying too much for the property
to get your targeted rate of return
An IRR greater than your target rate of return suggests you could pay more for the property and
still get your targeted rate of return
The Hindus and the Muslims liked and trusted him.
Mary had known him all her life. When her father died, still a young man, and she
and her mother had returned to England, Edgar Swift, whenever he came home on
leave, spent a great part of his time with them. As a child he took her to the
pantomime or the circus; as a girl in her teens, to the pictures or to the theatre;
he sent her presents for her birthday and at Christmas. When she was nineteen her
mother had said to her:
`I wouldn't see too much...
As the international community moves toward a more robust recognition of both the
human rights of disabled persons and the reproductive rights of women, the intersection
comprising the right of disabled women to reproductive freedom must be given full atten-
tion. This briefing paper proposes a human rights framework for considering the repro-
ductive rights of women with disabilities, taking into consideration international human
rights laws and instruments and global consensus documents.
Central to these conditions are developments
in benchmark interest rates. These comprise
mainly the key ECB interest rates, money
market rates and government bond yields,
with the latter containing the term structure of
risk-free rates, domestic sovereign credit risk
and liquidity premia (see Chart 1). These rates
are the main determinants of the conditions of
direct ﬁ nancing in ﬁ nancial markets for both
non-ﬁ nancial and ﬁ nancial corporations and,
consequently, for the wholesale market funding
and deposit funding of banks.
At the same time there were progressively more skeptical views on the impact of
securitization on the financial system stability. Some argue that by making illiquid loans liquid
securitization could increase, other things being equal, the risk appetite of banks (Calem and
LaCour, 2003; Wagner, 2007; and Brunnermeier and Sannikov, 2009). Risk sharing within the
financial sector through securitization can also amplify bank risks also at the systemic risk level
(Brunnermeier and Sannikov, 2010).
The potential impact of debt on inflation depends on the response of monetary policy. High
government debt could well constrain the ability of the central banks to set the policy rate to
control inflation. This is the “fiscal dominance” view. Heavily debted governments force the
central bank to accept inflation in order to reduce the real value of their debt. Historically,
inflation has helped governments to reduce their public debt burdens.
Panel C of Table 5 describes the board’s audit committee for our restating
and control samples. With the exception of one restating firm (Oil-Dry Company),
each firm in both our samples has an audit committee. In many
respects, the structure of this committee is similar for the two groups of
firms. The median size of this committee is three members in each group.
The mean (median) proportion of independent directors on this committee
(PIDAUD) is about 94 percent (100 percent) in both groups. But there is
one striking difference between the two groups.
A quick story... Years ago I was working with an auto manufacturer who had
built a racecar for the Indy Car circuit and wanted to unveil it to the media.
The manufacturer brought the car to mid-town Manhattan and wanted to
unveil it under spotlights in a hotel ballroom. The plan seemed simple
enough. Put the car in a truck, carry it to the site, put it on the elevator at the
hotel and take it up to the second floor ballroom where workers would push
the car into place the night before the event....
Scope of decision-making: Amajor factor is the scale at which query processing and viewmaterialization decisions
are made. At one extreme, all queries in the entire system are optimized together, using complete knowledge of the
available materialized views, resources, and network bandwidth constraints — this poses all of the challenges of
multi-query optimization plus a number of additional difﬁculties. In particular, work must be distributed globally
across many peers, and decisions must be made about when and where to materialize results for future use.
Most formal modelling in the past has used as a starting point a scenario of 2-3°C
warming. In this temperature range, the cost of climate change could be equivalent to
a permanent loss of around 0-3% in global world output compared with what could
have been achieved in a world without climate change. Developing countries will
suffer even higher costs.
However, those earlier models were too optimistic about warming: more recent
evidence indicates that temperature changes resulting from BAU trends in emissions
may exceed 2-3°C by the end of this century.
What have been the impacts of the GGDP-generated maize technologies? In the absence of reliable baseline data, it was not
possible to calculate quantitative measures of project impact. Based on farmers’ qualitative judgments, however, it is clear that
adoption of the GGDP-generated technologies has been associated with significant farm-level productivity gains (measured
in terms of maize yields) and noticeable increases in the income earned from sales of maize. Impacts on the nutritional status
of rural households, however, appear to have been less pronounced.