Xem 1-7 trên 7 kết quả Planetary surfaces
  • We are privileged to be living in one of the greatest eras of exploration that humankind has ever undertaken. Our current Age of Space grew out of the dark struggles of World War II when large rockets were developed as agents of mass murder. The subsequent Cold War rivalry between the United States and Soviet Union pushed rocket capabilities to the point that it became possible to send vehicles into Earth orbit and beyond (even though the stated aim was to send missiles carrying nuclear weapons over mere continental distances). The Russians put the first human into Earth orbit.

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  • The time required to reach other planets makes planetary surface exploration missions prime targets for automation. Sending rovers to other planets either instead of or together with people can also significantly reduce the danger and cost involved. Teams of rovers are both more fault tolerant (through redundancy) and more efficient (through parallelism) than single rovers if the rovers are coordinated well

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  • With a global average irradiance of 342 W/m2, the Sun is by far the largest source of energy for planet Earth. In comparison, the internal energy produced by Earth itself is only about 0.087 W/m2 (Pollack et al., 1993), which in turn is 3.5 times larger than the 0.025 W/m2 of heat produced by the burning of fossil fuels. About 31% (31 units) of the solar energy which arrives at the top of the atmosphere is reflected back to space by scattering from clouds, aerosols, and the Earth’s surface. Almost 20 units of solar radiation are absorbed in the atmosphere....

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  • Over the past few decades numerous studies have shown an alarming increase in the concentration of atmospheric particular matter called aerosols resulting from a variety of human activities, ranging from agricultural to combustion of fossil fuels. Besides having serious impacts on the health of all living creatures, these particles can affect planetary radiation budget. Consequences of this change include global temperature shifts and the altering of atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns.

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  • Humankind’s fascination with Mars predates recorded history. The bright planet with the reddish tint is unique among the other celestial objects. Tycho Brahe’s observations of its unpredictable motion were deciphered by Johannes Kepler in the early 17th century as he developed his laws of planetary motion. Galileo trained his telescope on Mars and saw it as a disk in 1610. Later in the 1600s, Christiaan Huygens and Gian Cassini drew the first maps of the Martian surface.

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  • From the early explorers onwards, visitors to the Arctic and to Antarctica have commented with great interest on the presence of lakes, wetlands, and fl owing waters. These environments encompass a spectacular range of conditions for aquatic life, from dilute surface melt ponds, to deep, highly stratifi ed, hypersaline lakes.

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  • This Atlas is not what it should be. If fate had been kinder, each of the four planetary bodies represented here would have had its own Atlas, each larger than this volume. Don’t blame the author, though; the culprit is an elegant yet critical device called the HGA, explained in Chapter 1.3. Should you pass over this book on your way to the used “pilates-at-home” bookshelf or toss it in the recycle paper bin? I hope not.

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