Invasive alien plants are harmful non-native plant species whose introduction
or spread threatens the environment, the economy, and society,
including human health. They can be introduced into Canada from other
countries or continents, or from one region of Canada to another. The current
threats posed by invasive alien plants are real and growing.
Why are invasive alien plants a problem? The economic cost of invasive alien
plants to Canadians is enormous. Weeds in crops and pastures alone cost an
estimated $2.2 billion annually.
This is a book about the Cerrado Biome, a major Brazilian
savanna-like ecosystem for which no such summary exists. Biologists
outside Brazil know little about the cerrados, despite the fact that the
biome covers approximately 22% of the country’s surface area, or 2 million
km2. Even though much of the attention of conservationists has
focused on rainforests such as the Amazon and Atlantic forests, the cerrados
are currently one the most threatened biomes of South America due
to the rapid expansion of agriculture.
The Current State and Trends assessment presents the findings of
the Condition and Trends Working Group of the Millennium
Ecosystem Assessment. This volume documents the current condition
and recent trends of the world’s ecosystems, the services
they provide, and associated human well-being around the year
2000. Its primary goal is to provide decision-makers, ecosystem
managers, and other potential users with objective information
and analyses of historical trends and dynamics of the interaction
between ecosystem change and human well-being.
The idea for this book stems from a meeting sponsored by the European Union,
organized by N. van Breemen, and held in Doorweerth at the end of 1991. At this
meeting a large number of European scientists discussed the different issues
related to the accumulation and decomposition of organic matter in terrestrial
ecosystems. One of the objectives was to gather scientists from various disciplines
(biologists, chemists, ecologists, agriculturalists) to pool their different disciplinary
approaches and come up with a common perspective for future research on
soil organic matter.
The MA, which focused on ecosystem change and
the impacts of such change on human well-being, included
a set of sub-global assessments at multiple
spatial scales, in addition to the global assessment.
This was one of the innovations of the MA compared to
other international assessments, which usually focus on
global or regional scales alone. The global and sub-global
assessments analyzed ecosystem services and human wellbeing
from different perspectives and with different stakeholders
The focus of the MA is on ecosystem services (the benefits people
obtain from ecosystems), how changes in ecosystem services have
affected human well-being in the past, and what role these
changes could play in the present as well as in the future. The
MA is an assessment of responses that are available to improve
ecosystem management and can thereby contribute to the various
constituents of human well-being. The specific issues addressed
have been defined through consultation with the MA users.
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was called for by United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan in 2000 in his
report to the UN General Assembly, We the Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century. Governments
subsequently supported the establishment of the assessment through decisions taken by three international
conventions, and the MA was initiated in 2001.
We have seen that the landlords' profits were seriously diminished by the Black Death, and they cast about them for new ways of increasing their incomes. Arable land had been until now largely in excess of pasture, the cultivation of corn was the chief object of agriculture, bread forming a much larger proportion of men's diet than now. This began to change. Much of the land was laid down to grass, and there was a steady increase in sheep farming; thus commenced that revolution in farming which in the sixteenth century led Harrison to say that England was mainly...
Under usual conditions no farmer expects to grow live stock successfully and economically without setting apart a large part of his land for the growth of mowing and pasture crops. Therefore to the grower of stock the management of grass crops is all-important. In planting either for a meadow or for a pasture, the farmer should mix different varieties of grass seeds. Nature mixes them when she plants, and Nature is always a trustworthy teacher. In planting for a pasture the aim should be to sow such seeds as will give green grass from early spring to latest fall....
We have now reached a time when the enclosure question was becoming of paramount importance, and began to cause constant anxiety to legislators, while the writers of the day are full of it. Enclosure was of four kinds: 1. Enclosing the common arable fields for grazing, generally in large tracts. 2. Enclosing the same by dividing them into smaller fields, generally of arable. 3. Enclosing the common pasture, for grazing or tillage. 4. Enclosing the common meadows or mowing grounds. It is the first mainly, and to a less degree the third of these, which were so frequent a...
A farm is like a machine, fuelled by various resources, such as pasture, manpower, soil, water, equipment, crop plants and animals. As the resources become depleted or are used improperly, the profitability of the ‘machine’
8 Managing plants – Crops and pastures
Whether you produce animals or harvest plants, the basis of any farm is still its plants. For a farm to remain sustainable, certain minimum productivity levels must be maintained, using preferred plant species on an ongoing basis.
Water requirements of camels, although low in comparison to other livestock species, are
still quite high in absolute terms. At the height of the dry season, when the ambient
temperatures are high and the vegetation is dry, an adult camel needs approximately 80 to
100 litres of water every five to seven days. If the pasture consists mainly of halophytic
plants and/or the available water is rich in minerals, the requirement will increase. It will
also increase in lactating animals. A herd of 100 camels during the dry season might
require as much as 10,000 litres of water three...
Kanchha’s family relied on agriculture and they decided to leave their village for
greener pastures in Kathmandu. On their way there, Kanchha has observed signs
of climate change everywhere. The Himalayan glaciers are slowly melting as the
snowline shifts higher; indigenous people along the way expressed their worry about
the arrival of new bug and plant species in the highlands; floods and landslides were
common and triggered by unpredictable rains. He picked up a rock that he had never
seen before, because it had been buried under the thick snow-cover.