Planted pastures

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  • Invasive alien plants are harmful non-native plant species whose introduction or spread threatens the environment, the economy, and society, including human health. They can be introduced into Canada from other countries or continents, or from one region of Canada to another. The current threats posed by invasive alien plants are real and growing. Why are invasive alien plants a problem? The economic cost of invasive alien plants to Canadians is enormous. Weeds in crops and pastures alone cost an estimated $2.2 billion annually.

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  • This is a book about the Cerrado Biome, a major Brazilian savanna-like ecosystem for which no such summary exists. Biologists outside Brazil know little about the cerrados, despite the fact that the biome covers approximately 22% of the country’s surface area, or 2 million km2. Even though much of the attention of conservationists has focused on rainforests such as the Amazon and Atlantic forests, the cerrados are currently one the most threatened biomes of South America due to the rapid expansion of agriculture.

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  • The Current State and Trends assessment presents the findings of the Condition and Trends Working Group of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. This volume documents the current condition and recent trends of the world’s ecosystems, the services they provide, and associated human well-being around the year 2000. Its primary goal is to provide decision-makers, ecosystem managers, and other potential users with objective information and analyses of historical trends and dynamics of the interaction between ecosystem change and human well-being.

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  • The MA, which focused on ecosystem change and the impacts of such change on human well-being, included a set of sub-global assessments at multiple spatial scales, in addition to the global assessment. This was one of the innovations of the MA compared to other international assessments, which usually focus on global or regional scales alone. The global and sub-global assessments analyzed ecosystem services and human wellbeing from different perspectives and with different stakeholders involved.

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  • The idea for this book stems from a meeting sponsored by the European Union, organized by N. van Breemen, and held in Doorweerth at the end of 1991. At this meeting a large number of European scientists discussed the different issues related to the accumulation and decomposition of organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems. One of the objectives was to gather scientists from various disciplines (biologists, chemists, ecologists, agriculturalists) to pool their different disciplinary approaches and come up with a common perspective for future research on soil organic matter.

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  • The focus of the MA is on ecosystem services (the benefits people obtain from ecosystems), how changes in ecosystem services have affected human well-being in the past, and what role these changes could play in the present as well as in the future. The MA is an assessment of responses that are available to improve ecosystem management and can thereby contribute to the various constituents of human well-being. The specific issues addressed have been defined through consultation with the MA users.

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  • The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was called for by United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan in 2000 in his report to the UN General Assembly, We the Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century. Governments subsequently supported the establishment of the assessment through decisions taken by three international conventions, and the MA was initiated in 2001.

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  • We have seen that the landlords' profits were seriously diminished by the Black Death, and they cast about them for new ways of increasing their incomes. Arable land had been until now largely in excess of pasture, the cultivation of corn was the chief object of agriculture, bread forming a much larger proportion of men's diet than now. This began to change. Much of the land was laid down to grass, and there was a steady increase in sheep farming; thus commenced that revolution in farming which in the sixteenth century led Harrison to say that England was mainly...

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  • Under usual conditions no farmer expects to grow live stock successfully and economically without setting apart a large part of his land for the growth of mowing and pasture crops. Therefore to the grower of stock the management of grass crops is all-important. In planting either for a meadow or for a pasture, the farmer should mix different varieties of grass seeds. Nature mixes them when she plants, and Nature is always a trustworthy teacher. In planting for a pasture the aim should be to sow such seeds as will give green grass from early spring to latest fall....

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  • We have now reached a time when the enclosure question was becoming of paramount importance,[184] and began to cause constant anxiety to legislators, while the writers of the day are full of it. Enclosure was of four kinds: 1. Enclosing the common arable fields for grazing, generally in large tracts. 2. Enclosing the same by dividing them into smaller fields, generally of arable. 3. Enclosing the common pasture, for grazing or tillage. 4. Enclosing the common meadows or mowing grounds. It is the first mainly, and to a less degree the third of these, which were so frequent a...

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  • 7 Management A farm is like a machine, fuelled by various resources, such as pasture, manpower, soil, water, equipment, crop plants and animals. As the resources become depleted or are used improperly, the profitability of the ‘machine’

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  • 8 Managing plants – Crops and pastures Whether you produce animals or harvest plants, the basis of any farm is still its plants. For a farm to remain sustainable, certain minimum productivity levels must be maintained, using preferred plant species on an ongoing basis.

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  • Water requirements of camels, although low in comparison to other livestock species, are still quite high in absolute terms. At the height of the dry season, when the ambient temperatures are high and the vegetation is dry, an adult camel needs approximately 80 to 100 litres of water every five to seven days. If the pasture consists mainly of halophytic plants and/or the available water is rich in minerals, the requirement will increase. It will also increase in lactating animals. A herd of 100 camels during the dry season might require as much as 10,000 litres of water three...

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  • Kanchha’s family relied on agriculture and they decided to leave their village for greener pastures in Kathmandu. On their way there, Kanchha has observed signs of climate change everywhere. The Himalayan glaciers are slowly melting as the snowline shifts higher; indigenous people along the way expressed their worry about the arrival of new bug and plant species in the highlands; floods and landslides were common and triggered by unpredictable rains. He picked up a rock that he had never seen before, because it had been buried under the thick snow-cover.

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