Platelet function

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  • Despite my many years of research and teaching in platelet physiology and pharmacology at the University of Minnesota, I am often confronted with conflicting opinions as to the relevance of nonnucleated platelets in human health and disease. It is fascinating to think that how cells with no apparent nucleus, have such a towering impact on concepts, dealing with often overlapping physiological (i.e. hemostasis, wound healing, etc.) and pathophysiological (i.e. thrombosis, stroke, atherosclerosis, wound healing, diabetes, inflammation and cancer) components.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: In Vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch

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  • There is a new blood test now: The Platelet Function Test which will be replacing the Bleeding Time Test (which was not often ordered anyway). NTMai cho biết ý kiến về test này. Đại khái xin cho biết: 1. khi nào thì order?

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: HES 130/0.4 impairs haemostasis and stimulates pro-inflammatory blood platelet function...

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  • von Willebrand Disease vWD is the most common inherited bleeding disorder. Estimates from laboratory data suggest a prevalence of approximately 1%, but data based on symptomatic individuals suggest that it is closer to 0.1% of the population. vWF serves two roles: (1) as the major adhesion molecule that tethers the platelet to the exposed subendothelium; and (2) as the binding protein for FVIII, resulting in significant prolongation of the FVIII half-life in circulation.

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  • Patients with type 2 vWD have functional defects; thus, the vWF antigen measurement is significantly higher than the test of function. For types 2A, 2B, and 2M, vWF activity is decreased, measured as ristocetin cofactor or collagen binding activity. In type 2A vWD, the impaired function is due either to increased susceptibility to cleavage by ADAMTS13, resulting in loss of intermediate- and high-molecular weight (M.W.) multimers, or to decreased secretion of these multimers by the cell.

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  • Abstract While there have been many reports investigating the biological activity and signaling mechanisms of isoprostanes, their role in biology, particularly in platelets, appears to still be underestimated. Moreover, whether these lipids have their own receptors is still debated, despite multiple reports that discrete receptors for isporpstanes do exist on platelets, vascular tissues, amongst others.

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  • The era of pharmacology, the science concerned with the understanding of drug action, began only about 150 years ago when Rudolf Buchheim established the first pharmacological laboratory in Dorpat (now, Tartu, Estonia). Since then, pharmacology has always been a lively discipline with “open borders”, reaching out not only to other life sciences such as physiology, biochemistry, cell biology and clinical medicine, but also to chemistry and physics.

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  • Systemic causes of nonpalpable purpura fall into several categories, and those secondary to clotting disturbances and vascular fragility will be discussed first. The former group includes thrombocytopenia (Chap. 109), abnormal platelet function as is seen in uremia, and clotting factor defects. The initial site of presentation for thrombocytopenia-induced petechiae is the distal lower extremity.

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  • The editor has incorporated scientific contributions from a diverse group of leading researchers in the field of hematology and related blood cell research. This book aims to provide an overview of current knowledge pertaining to our understanding of hematology. The main subject areas will include blood cell morphology and function, the pathophysiology and genetics of hematological disorders and malignancies, blood testing and typing, and the processes governing hematopoiesis. Blood cell physiology, biochemistry and blood flow are covered in this book....

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  • The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family was for more than 25 years assumed to consist of only PDGF-A and -B. The discovery of the novel family members PDGF-C and PDGF-D triggered a search for novel activities and complementary fine tuning between the members of this fam-ily of growth factors.

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  • Glycoprotein (GP) V is noncovalently linked to GPIba, GPIbband GPIX within the platelet GPIb–V–IX complex, a receptor for von Willebrand factor and thrombin. Two functions have been ascribed to GPV, namely, the modula-tionof thrombin- andcollagen-dependent platelet responses. The biosynthesis of this molecule was investigated in pulse– chase metabolic labelling experiments performed in CHO cell lines transfected with GPV, alone or in the presence of GPIb–IX.

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  • Platelet activation by thrombin plays a major role in the development of haemostasis and thrombosis. Thrombin activates human platelets by cleaving the N-terminal region of G-protein-coupled protease-activated receptors (PARs). On the other hand, the platelet membrane glycoprotein GPIb acts as a thrombin-binding site and promotes platelet activation by low thrombin concentrations.We present here new evidence in favour of a thrombin receptor function for GPIb. We have selected conditions in which thrombin– GPIb interactions were enhanced by thrombin immobiliza-tion....

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  • The adenosine A2a receptor belongs to the seven trans-membrane helix G-protein-coupled receptor family, is abundant in striatum, vasculature and platelets and is involved in several physiological processes such as blood pressure regulation and protection of cells during anoxia. For structural and biophysical studies we have expressed the human adenosine A2areceptor (hA2aR) at high levels inserted into the Escherichia coliinner membrane, and established a puri®cation scheme.

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  • Anemia occurs in ~80% of myeloma patients. It is usually normocytic and normochromic and related both to the replacement of normal marrow by expanding tumor cells and to the inhibition of hematopoiesis by factors made by the tumor. In addition, mild hemolysis may contribute to the anemia. A larger than expected fraction of patients may have megaloblastic anemia due to either folate or vitamin B12 deficiency. Granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia are very rare.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 59. Bleeding and Thrombosis Bleeding and Thrombosis: Introduction The human hemostatic system provides a natural balance between procoagulant and anticoagulant forces. The procoagulant forces include platelet adhesion and aggregation and fibrin clot formation; anticoagulant forces include the natural inhibitors of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Under normal circumstances, hemostasis is regulated to promote blood flow; however, it is also prepared to clot blood rapidly to arrest blood flow and prevent exsanguination.

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  • New York, New York. A blissful spring morning beckoned, cloudless and blue and pure. I was driving my high-mileage Toyota down Seventh Avenue, headed for the location shoot that was supposed to wind up principal photography for my first feature film, Baby Love. It was about the pain and joy of adoption. I guess directing your first feature is something like giving birth to your first child, but that gets us way, way ahead of the story. My name, by the way, is Morgan Smyth James, after two grandmothers, and I'm thirty-eight and single and strive to be eternally optimistic.

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  • Table 81-2 Commonly Used Cancer Chemotherapy Agents Drug Exam ples of Usual Doses Toxicity Issues Interactions, Direct DNA-Interacting Agents Alkylators Cyclophospha 2000 400– mg/m2 Marrow (relative Liver metabolism required mide IV platelet sparing) to activate to phosphoramide 100 mg/m2 PO qd Common alkylatora Mesna protects Cardiac dose) against Cystitis mustard + acrolein (high "high-dose" bladder damage Mechloretha mine 6 mg/m2 IV day Marrow Topical use in cutaneous lymphoma Vesicant 1 and day 8 Nausea Chlorambucil 1–3 mg/m2 qd PO Marrow Common alkylat...

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  • cilia are involved in diverse cellular functions, such as patterning of left-right asymmetry (nodal cilia), limb development, bone morphogenesis, and neurosensory functions (mechanosensation, olfaction, and photoreception). Cilia are also implicated in several developmental cascades, such as Wnt signaling, sonic hedgehog signaling, and platelet derived growth factor receptor signaling pathways.

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