During the last decades, the usage of telecommunications systems has increased rapidly.
Because of a permanent necessity for new telecommunications services and additional
transmission capacities, there is also a need for the development of new telecommunications
networks and transmission technologies. From the economic point of view,
telecommunications promise big revenues, motivating large investments in this area.
The performance of current transport systems is inadequate when viewed in
terms of economic efficiency, sustainability, and safety. Towards Better Performing
Transport Networks examines the tools that are necessary to effectively
measure these systems and those that are required to improve them.
Utilising advanced tools of network analysis, the contributors challenge
various pieces of conventional wisdom and in particular the view that intermodal
transport is more environmentally benign than road transport.
Despite the great technological advancement experienced in recent years,
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) are still used in many applications from the real
world and still play a central role in infrastructure of industrial automation. PLC operate in
the factory-floor level and are responsible typically for implementing logical control,
regulatory control strategies, such as PID and fuzzy-based algorithms, and safety logics.
Usually PLC are interconnected with the supervision level through communication
network, such as Ethernet networks, in order to work in an integrated form....