Policies determine

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  • The study of public policy, including the methods of policy analysis, has been among the most rapidly developing fi elds in the social sciences over the past several decades. Policy analysis emerged to both better understand the policymaking process and to suppy policy decision makers with reliable policy-relevant knowledge about pressing economic and social problems.

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  • On behalf of its clients, PGGM Investments manages several real estate investment portfolios structured around listed real estate and private real estate. PGGM Investments recognizes the impact real estate has on the environment as well as on societal systems, for instance with regard to CO2 emissions. This document addresses PGGM Investments’ policy on integrating material environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues into our real estate investments. The scope of this policy covers both the listed and the private real estate portfolios.

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  • The availability of crop insurance for a particular crop in a particular region is an administrative decision made by USDA. The decision is made on a crop-by-crop and county-by-county basis, based on farmer demand for coverage and the level of risk associated with the crop in the region, among other factors. In areas where a policy is not available, farmers may request that RMA expand the program to their county. The process usually starts with a pilot program in order for RMA to gain experience and test the program components before it becomes more widely available.

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  • I came to view the process by which a central bank manages the interbank rate in a different light a few years ago in a paper on the zero bound on interest rate policy. 8 Obviously, at the zero bound it is no longer possible for a central bank to operate on the interest opportunity cost spread. The spread is zero. Nevertheless, a central bank still may be said to manage the interbank rate when it is zero. Thus, something other than open market operations and the interest opportunity cost spread must matter for the implementation of interest rate policy. Irving...

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  • Chapter 14 introduce to the bank of Canada and monetary policy. In this chapter you will learn: The main functions of the bank of Canada, how the Bank of Canada can expand or contract the money supply, the components of money demand, how the equilibrium interest rate is determined in the money market, the mechanism by which the interest rate affects GDP.

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  • At the start of the twenty-first century, international aspects of economics remain as important and controversial as ever.

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  • From one of the most influential economists of the modern era, Keynes and his "General Theory" shaped economic thought and government policies for decades to come. Out of this magnum opus arose the Keynesian school of economics. Keynes argues that the level of employment in a modern economy was determined by three factors: the marginal propensity to consume (income that people chose to spend on goods and services), the marginal efficiency of capital (the rate used to see whether investments are worthy) and the rate of interest.

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  • Labour is the most important activity of a human being creating both material products and social values. High labour productivity, quality and efficiency are significant factors which determine the level of development of a country. By regulating the rights and obligations of employees and employers, labour standards, and labour utilization and management, the Labour Code not only contributes increased production but also plays an important role in society and in the legal system of the nation....

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  • Plants are continuously affected by a variety of environmental factors. Whereas biotic environmental factors are other organisms such as symbionts, parasites, pathogens, herbivores, and competitors, abiotic factors include parameters and resources which determine plant growth like temperature, relative humidity, light, availability of water, mineral nutrients, and CO 2 , as well as wind, ionizing radiation, or pollutants (Schulze et al. 2002 ) . The effect each abiotic factor has on the plant depends on its quantity or intensity.

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  • The Debt Sustainability Framework sets out a proposal by the World Bank for identifying countries in actual or potential debt distress situations leading to a formula for determining grant eligibility within the amounts to be allocated during the Fourteenth Replenishment of IDA. It attempts to classify countries based on the performance of their institutions and policies and determine thresholds for selected debt indicators for each country grouping and then estimate the level of debt distress as measured by the forecast levels of the selected indicators from the country DSAs.

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  • The Thirteenth Replenishment Agreement of the World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA), covering the period 2003-5 inclusive, introduced grant financing for the first time in IDA’s 40-year history. The Agreement recognized that unsustainable levels of debt should be a criterion for eligibility of grants for low-income borrowers, along with criteria such as the exigencies of natural disasters, conflict and the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In IDA 13, each borrower was subject to a cap of grant funding equivalent to 40 percent of its total IDA allocation.

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  • The sub-component of the project on research CARD 026/VIE-05 flat bed dryer, as specified in the contract, including the following activities: Choose the site and supervise the installation of a flat bed dryer 8 tons for the experiments. Conducting experiments with 8-ton dryer under actual production conditions. Building a lab (mini) dryer and other tools necessary for testing in controlled conditions.

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  • Unlike in the HIPC Initiative where a single indicator – debt to exports - was used the DSF paper selects three debt ratios to judge debt sustainability. Further, country policies and institutional capability and vulnerability to shocks are other factors identified as being important for assessing a country’s debt sustainability. In particular, country policies and institutional capability are used to grade countries and determine different debt ratio thresholds for them.

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  • This ASTRA network paper examines barriers to accessing reproductive health services and supplies in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). The paper finds that reproductive health is not prioritised in government policies: they lack a commitment to recognise reproductive health supplies as an important component of public health and human rights and there is no adequate legislation and policy in this area. Condoms are widely available, but their cost is often high, especially for young people.

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