Policy and regulation

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  • Changes in the use of land reflect a variety of environmental and social factors, necessitating an equally varied suite of data to be used for effective analysis. While remote sensing, both from satellites and air photos, provides a central resource for study, socio-economic surveys, censuses, and map sources also supply a wealth of valid information. Land Use Change: Science, Policy and Management presents spacial theories and methodologies that support an integrated approach to the analysis of land use change.

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  • The Investment Company Institute (“ICI”) and ICI Global appreciate the opportunity to comment on the consultative document published by the Financial Stability Board (“FSB”) entitled “Strengthening Oversight and Regulation of Shadow Banking: A Policy Framework for Oversight and Regulation of Shadow Banking Entities.”1 ICI is the national association of U.S.

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  • The structure of the paper is as follows. Section 2 discusses the literature on both measuring competition and the bank interest rate pass-through. Section 3 describes the Boone indicator of competition and Section 4 the employed interest rate pass-through model of the error-correction type and the applied panel unit root and cointegration tests. Section 5 presents the various data sets used. The results on the various tests and estimates of the spread model and the error correction model equations are shown in Section 6. Finally, Section 7 summarises and concludes....

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  • Bathroom surfaces, such as faucets, handles, and toilet seats should be washed and disinfected several times a day, if possible, but at least once daily or when obviously soiled. The bleach and water solution or chlorine-containing scouring powders or other commercial bathroom surface cleaners/disinfectants can be used in these areas. Surfaces that infants and young toddlers are likely to touch or mouth, such as crib rails, should be washed with soap and water and disinfected with a nontoxic disinfectant, such as bleach solution, at least once daily and more often if visibly soiled.

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  • Furthermore, much has changed in north India since Dyson and Moore’s account was written. In addition to the cumulative impact of family planning programmes (which have made contraception an issue that can be discussed publicly) and changes in consumption patterns (with the rise of mobile phones, and a great extension of mass media into rural and poor urban areas, for example) there have also been major attempts to raise school enrolment levels and to reduce gender disparities.

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  • Earlier research confirms this disparity in views and also the huge variation in the structures and roles of PMOs. In the tougher economic conditions and increasingly competitive business environment of today, organisations cannot afford to continue spending huge sums of money on unsuccessful projects and programmes. Neither can they afford the cost of an ineffective PMO. So it is important to evaluate and understand the value a PMO can and should deliver and what constitutes the right mix of people and processes within a PMO to make that contribution.

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  • The CWA contains both “water-quality based” regulatory controls, which vary according to the designated use (e.g., drinking water source, fishable, swimmable) and attributes (e.g., volume and rate of flow) of the receiving water body, and “technology- based” effluent standards that are achievable using available pollution control technology.

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  • In this chapter, students will be able to understand: List and explain the core elements of the major antitrust (antimonopoly) laws in the United States, describe some of the key issues relating to the interpretation and application of antitrust laws, identify and explain the economic principles and difficulties relating to the setting of prices (rates) charged by so-called natural monopolies, discuss the nature of "social regulation," its benefits and costs, and its optimal level.

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  • minimize the risk of noncompliance with export control laws. Export Management and Compliance Program Defined An EMCP includes both the operational export compliance policies and procedures an organization implements and a written set of guidelines that captures those policies and procedures.

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  • Transfer Pricing and Valuation in Corporate Taxation analyzes the disparities between both federal statutes and regulations, and reg- ulations and administrative practice, in a highly controversial area of corporate tax policy: intra-company transfer pricing for tax pur- poses. It addresses issues that often mean millions of dollars to indi- vidual corporations, and a significant fraction of the federal govern- ment’s revenue base.

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  • The hot air produced by the projection lamphouses must always be extracted to the outside of the building. This is not new and you have to be very careful regarding this exhaust air. The correct exhaust of the hot air ensures a longer service life of your equipment as well as better ageing characteristics of your lamps and an optimized functional capability of your installation. You have to correctly calibrate the flow of the exhaust air in accordance with the lamp power (or the max. lamp power allowed for the lamphouse - see...

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  • Agricultural biotechnologies apply modern knowledge in molecular and cell biology to produce new varieties and similar genetic materials. The use of genetically modified (GM) crop varieties has grown dramatically since they were introduced in 1995, and large portions of the land allocated to corn, soybeans, and cotton are grown with these varieties. The evidence from the United States, Canada, China, India, Brazil, and Argentina suggests that these applications of biotechnology in agriculture increase yield, reduce the use of pesticides, and save production costs. ...

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  • This unusual and difficult balance is on full display in Kelman's ambitious attempt to address the most vexing problem of the social reform agenda: How should the costs of social programs be borne? Based on his well-received Cooley Lectures at the University of Michigan, Kelman's book seeks the guiding constitutional and policy considerations that should constrain government action. The topics covered include such front-burner issues as the revitalization of takings doctrine and the debates over the role of tax subsidies for desired private conduct.

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  • The prominence of private health insurance has been buttressed by government interventions directed at PHI markets in several OECD health systems, although the effectiveness of policies aimed at increasing market size and fostering outcome quality has differed widely. Australia, Ireland, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland and the United States have promoted and maintained a large and viable private health insurance market because policy makers have concluded that mixed public-private coverage systems can better deliver desired health policy and social outcomes.

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  • he Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce which deals with issues involving national security and high technology. A principal goal for the bureau is helping stop proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, while furthering the growth of United States exports. The Bureau is led by the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security. The mission of the BIS is to advance U.S. national security, foreign policy, and economic interests.

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  • We have set out below our key messages resulting from the work of the Midwifery 2020 programme which underpin the vision of how midwives can lead and deliver care in a changing environment. They reinforce and restate the core values of the profession, celebrate the achievements made in the past, and show how midwives can continue to strengthen their unique contribution as key professionals who ensure that women, their partners and their babies have safe and life enhancing experiences.

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  • With link correlation information (CPRP) available among neighboring nodes, collective ACKs are achieved in an accumulative manner. The success of a transmis- sion to a node (defined as the coverage probability of a node) is no longer a binary (0/1) estimation, but a prob- ability value between 0 and 1. Using collective ACKs, a sender updates the coverage probability values of neigh- boring receivers whenever (i) it transmits or (ii) over- hears a rebroadcast message.

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  • A number of OECD countries experienced an environment of low interest rates and a rapid increase in housing market activity during the last decade. Previous work suggests three potential explanations for these events: expansionary monetary policy, capital inflows due to a global savings glut and excessive financial innovation combined with inappropriately lax financial regulation. In this study we examine the effects of these three factors on the housing market.

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  • The third type of animation is called behavioral animation and takes into account the relationship between each object and the other objects. Moreover the control of animation may be performed at a task level, but we may aso consider the animated objects as autonomous creatures. In fact, we will consider as a behavioral motion control method any method which drives the behavior of objects by providing high-level directives indicating a specific behavior without any other stimulus. ...

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  • Demand for organically produced food products is increasing rapidly in North America, driven by a perception that organic agriculture results in fewer negative environmental impacts and yields greater benefits for human health than conventional systems. Despite the increasing interest in organic grain production on the Canadian Prairies, a number of challenges remain to be addressed to ensure its long-term sustainability. In this review, we summarize Western Canadian research into organic crop production and evaluate its agronomic, environmental, and economic sustainability. ...

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