Water policies intersect with a wide array of
sectors, especially energy and agriculture, and
are implemented at various geographical scales,
from local to international. Thus, policy coherence
is essential. However, tensions may arise from
real or perceived trade‑offs between various
policy objectives ‑ for instance, between food
security and water productivity. Inefficiencies may
result from subsidies that have negative impacts
on water, as in the case of energy subsidies for
groundwater abstraction by farmers.
The connection between poverty and lack of education seems entirely self-evident, yet real progress in overcoming the obstacles to education and economic affluence has eluded governments and social activists worldwide for decades. This book interrogates the link between education and poverty reduction and highlights the role of cross-sectoral co-ordination and policy coherence in breaking the poverty trap.
By going back to the classifications used in the specialised literature on the subject, this
study covers –in a manner restricted to certain economic policies and, therefore,
excluding other non-economic policies, such as security, defence and cultural policies–
what the OECD (2000) has called horizontal coherence and Picciotto (2005a and b) intra-
country coherence or whole of government.
This paper looks at the coherence of development policies with regard to the consistency
between, on the one hand, the objectives or results of a donor’s economic policies that
have an impact on the countries receiving development aid, and, on the other, the
objectives of the official international development cooperation policy.
We have attempted to include all the economic policies that can have an impact on aid-
The DAC Reference Document on Poverty and Health, jointly published by the OECD
and the World Health Organization (WHO), is the outcome of a joint effort by DAC
members working together through the DAC Network on Poverty Reduction. It builds on
bilateral agency experience and the work of leading organisations such as the WHO, the
World Bank and other United Nations agencies as well as non-governmental
Taxation of financial intermediation receives surprisingly little ana-
lytical attention, despite its practical importance both for national
budgets and for the efficient functioning of the financial system.
This volume is an attempt to provide a coherent overview of the
policy issues involved.
Andrew von Hirsch addresses a number of emerging conceptual questions concerning the proportionality of criminal sentences, an approach that is gaining influence worldwide including in England where the Criminal Justice Act of 1991 made proportionality the primary criterion for determining sentences. This study deals with how the idea of penal censure justifies proportionate sentences, how a penalty scale should be "anchored" in order to reduce overall punishment levels, how non-custodial penalties should be graded and used, and how political pressures impinge on sentencing policies.
In other words, we exclude both the analysis of other (non-economic) foreign policies with
an impact on the development of development-aid-receiving countries, and the coherence
between the instruments and objectives of international development cooperation policy.
Some of these aspects are covered in previous papers on the coherence of Spain’s
development policies, such as Alonso and FitzGerald (2003).
Very broadly speaking, the development of aid-receiving countries has been established
as the objective we have to be consistent with.
Yet the measures agreed so far are not sufﬁ cient to contain the negative environmental
effects of transport growth. Furthermore, there is still no coherent ‘roadmap’ to reduce
emissions from transport.
The rail sector strongly recommends that transport policies in the EU and elsewhere
start to make more use of the energy efﬁ ciency of railways in order to progress towards
the 2020 targets. Railways already offer the most energy-efﬁ cient performance and are
constantly improving, both in terms of passenger km (pkm) and tonne km (tkm)....
In many countries, no comprehensive and coherent policy and legislation exists for water
pollution control or for environmental protection (see Case Study XIII, Yemen). This does
not prevent water pollution control from taking place before such policies have been
formulated and adopted, but the most efficient and effective outcome of water pollution
control is obtained within a framework of defined policies, plans and co-ordinating
This study also aims to offer a more complete view of the many necessary measures to
achieve global and coherent actions from donor countries. However, it must be pointed
out that just as the choice of measures contained in the MDGs can be arbitrary, so can
the selection of variables and economic policies included in this document.
The governments of Finland and Korea both have demonstrated during past downturns that
bold innovation policy initiatives can accelerate structural changes which face high obstacles in
normal times (Box 1). Such initiatives require proper framework conditions and a coherent crisis
Anti-crisis policy measures can provide built-in incentives to innovate
Clearly, innovation will be one of the keys to emerging from the downturn and putting countries
back on a path to sustainable – and smarter – growth.
Because of their size, strategic importance, and the magnitude of the institutional
changes they have experienced during economic transition, the economic policies and
performance of Russia and China provide dramatic experiments for the social scientist.
A key element of each country’s transition has been the attempt to construct a fiscal
system providing a coherent framework for accountability of the government’s use of
Sustainable urban development requires an integrated approach and the Thematic
Strategy advocates that national and regional authorities support municipalities in
achieving more integrated management at the local level. This approach is
supported by both of the Council and the European Parliament5.
Integrated approaches include long-term strategic visions and link different policies
at different administrative levels to ensure coherency.