The topic of policy formulation among interdependent economies has
received much attention in the literature. China and Hong Kong are economically
closely linked. Policy initiatives in one economy may influence the evolution of
economics variables in the other. In the first essay a two-country model is used to
illustrate the interdependence of these two economies. Not surprisingly, we found
that the policy effects are asymmetric, due to differences in size. China’s
economic policies have a big effect on Hong Kong, but the reverse is not true.
This edition continues the theme that runs throughout all 12 chapters: global environmental
sustainability. This strategic issue will become even more important in the years ahead, as all
of us struggle to deal with the consequences of climate change, global warming, and energy
availability. We continue to be the most comprehensive strategy book on the market, with
chapters ranging from corporate governance and social responsibility to competitive strategy,
functional strategy, and strategic alliances.
Seventy-five percent of the world’s poor live in rural areas and most are involved in farming. In the 21st century, agriculture remains fundamental to economic growth, poverty alleviation, and environmental sustainability. The World Bank’s Agriculture and Rural Development publication series presents recent analyses of issues that affect agriculture’s role as a source of economic development, rural livelihoods, and environmental services.
Seventy-five percent of the world’s poor live in rural areas and most are involved
in agriculture. In the 21st century, agriculture remains fundamental to economic
growth, poverty alleviation, and environmental sustainability. The World Bank’s
Agriculture and Rural Development publication series presents recent analyses of
issues that affect the role of agriculture, including livestock, fisheries, and forestry,
as a source of economic development, rural livelihoods, and environmental services.
Two hundred years ago, Lewis and Clark led their “Corps of Discovery”
on an unprecedented expedition to explore the vast dimensions of the
nation’s longest and largest river basin—the Missouri. Their central charge
was to seek a water route to the Pacific Ocean to support commerce and
development. Since those early days, the Missouri River and its tributaries
have occupied a unique place in United States history.
One of the most significant contributions of the MEASURE DHS program is the creation of an
internationally comparable body of data on the demographic and health characteristics of populations in
developing countries. The DHS Comparative Reports series examines these data across countries in a
comparative framework. The DHS Analytical Studies series focuses on specific topics. The principal
objectives of both series are to provide information for policy formulation at the international level and to
examine individual country results in an international context.
On average, a disaster occurs somewhere in the world each day.
These events are almost always of high local interest. Occasionally they are
also of national interest, and every now and then they capture the attention
of the entire world. In this new century, we already have witnessed disasters
so great that they were virtually incomprehensible.
On August 23rd
, the Italian Treasury announced it is preparing a plan to temporarily
reduce taxes on gasoline and other petroleum-based fuels by about one-third, sparking
protests from environmental organizations saying the lower taxes will negate carbon
taxes designed to discourage use of high-polluting fuels. In a prepared statement, the
Italian Treasury said it would cut gasoline taxes but that details about the plan are still
being worked out. The treasury plans to lower taxes temporarily as a way to ease the
blow of rising oil prices.
And this gap only widens over the course of women’s careers, in part because women are more likely to
take time away from work to care for their families. As men gain experience in the labor force, their
wage gains typically exceed those experienced by women. In 2011, for example, a typical 25 year-old
woman working full-time, year-round will have already earned $5,000 less than a typical 25 year-old
man. If that woman faces the same wage gaps at each age that existed in 2011, then by age 35, she will
have earned $33,600 less than a typical...
Natural resources- definition, characteristics and classification of natural resources. Historical
development of natural resource economics, major natural resource issues, role of economics in
natural resource planning, policy formulation and management. Common property resources. Time
and spatial analysis in use of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources. Natural resource
accounting. Natural resource scarcity, measures to mitigate resource scarcity, individual utility and
the social welfare function.
Management of acute pain, especially post-operative pain, in patients on high dose opioids is a challenge
that requires in-depth knowledge of pharmacokinetics and the formulation of a careful management plan
to avoid withdrawal symptoms and inadequate pain management.
• Chronic pain after cancer surgery may occur in up to 50% of patients. Risk factors for the development of
chronic pain after breast cancer surgery include: young age, chemo and radiotherapy, poor post-operative
pain control and certain surgical factors.
The contributors describe the creation of democratic local governments from the time of the 1976 Soweto uprising and the intense township struggles of the 1980s, the construction of ’developmental’ planning and financial frameworks, and the delivery of housing and services by the new democratic order. They examine the policy formulation processes and what underlay these, debate the role of research and the influence of international development agencies and assess successes and failures in policy implementation.
The philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey believed that historians who
judge past events by the standards of later eras are acting ahistorically
and arbitrarily. It was more valid and illuminating, he
suggested, to ask whether earlier statesmen’s actions were internally
consistent and well-aligned with existing circumstances, an
approach that he called “immanent critique.”1
In judging contemporary climate policies, some scientists and
environmental activists resemble the historians of whom Dilthey
This Code, consisting of 24 imperatives formulated as statements of personal responsibility, identifies the elements of such a commitment. It contains many, but not all, issues professionals are likely to face.
Section 1 outlines fundamental ethical considerations
Section 2 addresses additional, more specific considerations of professional conduct.
Section 3 pertain more specifically to individuals who have a leadership role, whether in the workplace or in a volunteer capacity such as with organizations like ACM.
Section 4 addresses principles involving compliance with this Code
This report presents preliminary findings from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (2010 RDHS). Survey findings will be used by policy makers to evaluate the demographic and health status of the Rwandan population in order to formulate appropriate population and health policies and programs in Rwanda. The forthcoming final report and summary report of the RDHS will contain more detailed findings.
These damaging effects of poverty on child health
can be reduced by well designed policies. Various
options have been reviewed by some of us.
summarises approaches used in different countries to
improve health inputs and services in poor populations,
with emphasis on those related to child health. Several
different—and generally complementary—approaches
are possible. Improvement of knowledge and changing
of behaviour among poor mothers has been achieved in
many settings, in areas as diverse as handwashing for
diarrhoea prevention and nutrition counselling.
Chapter 17 - Foreign exchange: risk identification and management. In this chapter, students will be able to: Recognise FX transaction, translation, operational and economic risk, formulate an FX policy document, outline methods to identify a company’s FX exposures, describe the implementation of market-based hedging techniques, explain internal non-market-based techniques for managing FX risk.
Since 1993, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam has pursued a policy of restructuring its
external debt in order to reduce its debt burden. In 2002, the Bretton Woods institutions
prepared a debt sustainability analysis that concluded that the country was not eligible
for the Enhanced Highly Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) Initiative. Furthermore, in
2003, the Vietnamese authorities approved a debt strategy for the period of 2001-2010
formulated by the Ministry of Planning and Investment (MPI).
The first experimental activities to support innovation in relation to regional and social policy, effectively pi
oneering the development of the knowledge-based economy at regional level, were launched by the Commis
sion in 1993-94. Today, nearly one in three regional authorities across the EU-15 have formulated a Regional
Innovation Strategy or a Regional Innovation Society Initiative, aimed at developing effective innovation sys
tems and spreading Information & Communication Technologies related know-how at regional level.
These concerns were behind the establishment in 1983 of the World Commission on
Environment and Development by the UN General Assembly. The Commission is an
independent body, linked to but outside the control of governments and the UN system.