This chapter for the forthcoming Handbook of Environmental Economics focuses exclusively on the second component, the means — the “instruments” — of environmental policy, and considers, in
particular, experience around the world with the relatively new breed of economic-incentive or marketbased policy instruments.
The deployment of ‘new’ environmental policy instruments (NEPIs), namely
eco-taxes and other market-based instruments (MBIs), voluntary agreements
(VAs) and informational devices such as eco-labels, has grown spectacularly in
recent years. In 1987, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD) [OECD, 1994:177] reported that most national
environmental policies still relied upon a regulatory or ‘command and control’
mode of action, but since then the number of MBIs has grown ‘substantially’
This document presents the operational
framework chosen by the Eurosystem* for the
single monetary policy in the euro area. The
document, which forms part of the Eurosystem’s
legal framework for monetary policy instruments
and procedures, is intended to serve as the
“General Documentation” on the monetary
policy instruments and procedures of the
Eurosystem, and is aimed, in particular, at
providing counterparties with the information
they need in relation to the Eurosystem’s
monetary policy framework....
Group Policy Overview The System policies provide another instrument to help system administrators control user access to the network and manage desktop settings, including data sharing and configuring system settings
A fundamental element of sustainable development is environmental sustainability.
Hence, this series was created in 2007 to cover current and emerging issues
in order to promote debate and broaden the understanding of environmental
challenges as integral to achieving equitable and sustained economic growth. The
series will draw on analysis and practical experience from across the World Bank
and from client countries.
China has a dual-track interest-rate system: bank deposit and lending rates are regulated while
money and bond rates are market-determined. The central bank also imposes an indicative target,
which may not be binding at all times, for total credit in the banking system. We develop and cali-
brate a theoretical model to illustrate the conduct of monetary policy within the framework of dual-
track interest rates and a juxtaposition of price- and quantity-based policy instruments.
Chapter 12 - Government debt, monetary policy, the payments system and interest rates. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Outline reasons why governments borrow; describe features of the main debt instruments and market participants; show how government securities are priced; discuss monetary policy, interest rates and the payments system.
The research described in this report was sponsored by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (formerly the Health Care Financing Administration). The research was conducted through a subcontract from RAND to Harvard University and represents a collaborative effort involving faculty from the department of Health Care Policy at Harvard Medical School, Sargent College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences at Boston University and RAND Health.
We find that for operational forms of policy rules, ie rules that do not depend on contemporaneous values of endogenous aggregate variables, many interest-rate rules do not exhibit robust stability. We consider a variety of interest-rate rules, including instrument rules, optimal reaction functions under discretion or commitment, and rules that approximate optimal policy under commitment.
Chapter 13 - An introduction to interest rate determination and forecasting. After completing this unit, you should be able to: Explain the reasons for a change in the RBA’s interest rate policy, describe how changes in interest rates affect the rest of the economy, outline the possible shapes of a yield curve, explain the theories that describe how a yield curve obtains its shape.
This chapter define fiscal policy and describe fiscal goals and instruments at the macroeconomic, sectoral and microeconomic levels; discuss the evolution of views on the macroeconomic role of fiscal policy, focusing on the distinction between the Keynesian and structural approaches and the choice between discretionary and rulesbased fiscal regimes; distinguish between the various definitions of budget balance and explain the economic significance of each;...
Chapter 12 - Government debt, monetary policy and the payments system. The goals of this chapter are: Outline reasons why governments borrow; describe features of the main commonwealth government debt instruments, issuance process, participants and related calculations; describe the purpose and structure of state government central borrowing authorities;...
Chapter 17 - Foreign exchange: risk identification and management. In this chapter, students will be able to: Recognise FX transaction, translation, operational and economic risk, formulate an FX policy document, outline methods to identify a company’s FX exposures, describe the implementation of market-based hedging techniques, explain internal non-market-based techniques for managing FX risk.
The use of market-based instruments (MBIs) for the management of biodiversity and ecosystem services is currently booming, as shown by their prominence in high level reports and the
grey and scientific literature devoted to environmental
management and policy-making. But the definition and underpinning theory of these tools are yet unsettled matters...
The choice of pollution control instrument is a crucial environmental policy decision. With growing momentum for federal legislation to control greenhouse gases, interest among policy makers in the issue of instrument choice has reached a fever pitch.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Economics for business and management" has contents: Government policies - instruments and objectives; demographic and social environment; political, legal, ecological and technological environment; functions of management - domestic business environment, international business environment,...and other contents.
The teaching and the practicing of corporate finance are more challenging and exciting
than ever before. The last decade has seen fundamental changes in financial markets and
financial instruments. In the early years of the 21st century, we still see announcements in
the financial press about such matters as takeovers, junk bonds, financial restructuring, initial
public offerings, bankruptcy, and derivatives. In addition, there is the new recognition
of “real” options (Chapters 21 and 22), private equity and venture capital (Chapter 19), and
the disappearing dividend (Chapter 18).
Risk is the fundamental element that influences financial behavior. In its absence, the financial
system necessary for efficient allocations of resources would be vastly simplified. In that world, only
a few institutions and financial instruments would be needed, and the practice of finance would
require relatively elementary analytical tools. But, of course, in the real world, risk is ubiquitous.
Much of the structure of the financial system we see serves the function of the efficient distribution
Forty years ago, Congress asked the National Academies Committee on
Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP)—the only joint policy
committee of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of
Engineering, and Institute of Medicine—to look at the relationship between basic
research and national goals. That request, from the House Committee on Science
and Astronautics in 1964, resulted in the report Basic Research and National Goals.
Levine explains what the financial system does and how it affects, and is affected by, economic growth. Theory suggests that financial instruments, markets, and institutions arise to mitigate the effects of information and transaction costs. A growing literature shows that differences in how well financial systems reduce information and transaction costs influence savings rates, investment decisions, technological innovation, and long-run growth rates. A less developed theoretical literature shows how changes in economic activity can influence financial systems.