This chapter explores the tools of government stabilization policy in terms of the aggregate demand-aggregate (AD-AS) model. Next, the chapter examines fiscal policy measures that automatically adjust government expenditures and tax revenues when the economy moves through the business cycle phases. The recent use and resurgence of fiscal policy as a tool are discussed, as are problems, criticism, and complications of fiscal policy.
Policy framework for post-disaster for the affected groups rather
comprehensive. The Government shall provide special groups affected, and support measures
support level, policies on rescue and restore production as well as policy advocacy
relief. Policy in post-disaster recovery is a top-down approach, so that governments
level of response time and quick to minimize loss of human life and property and special
famine occurred the consequences of natural disasters. However, in the long run, policies
production recovery appears to be less drastic....
Targets also move dramatically over time. SME development policies in Western Europe, for example,
focused on employment creation in the late 1980s and early 1990s. By the end of the century the emphasis
had changed to international competitiveness and innovation. As a result, policy targets moved towards
technology issues and creation of an enterprise culture. In transition economies a major focus has been upon
creating an enabling environment for the market economy.
Despite some clear successes, many countries are still failing to implement the policy and
programme changes needed to improve access to affordable medicines. Although the
challenges faced differ from country to country, a common problem is a lack of techni-
cal capacity to link price data to local policy processes (and so determine the causes of
high prices and unexplained price variations) and to identify and prepare suitable lines of
Prof Yoswa Dambisya (University of Limpopo/EQUINET) scoped the Consultation over the
three days, emphasising the links between activities in Day One to subsequent discussions.
Day One would focus on country policies, positions and plans, with a view to identifying
common ground, common challenges and common approaches. He encouraged delegates
to ask: What can we do together, and what do we differently? He asked delegates to find
ways of pulling in the same direction, in the Kenyan spirit of “Harambee”.
Chapter 30 - Fiscal policy, deficits, and debt. This chapter explores the tools of government stabilization policy in terms of the aggregate demand-aggregate (AD-AS) model. Next, the chapter examines fiscal policy measures that automatically adjust government expenditures and tax revenues when the economy moves through the business cycle phases. The recent use and resurgence of fiscal policy as a tool are discussed, as are problems, criticism, and complications of fiscal policy.
Research objectives: Overviewing scientific works relating to development of trade relations between Viet Nam and SACU countries, issues had been researched, identifying issues have not been or not deeply been then decide to further research in this thesis. This thesis will theoretically and practicially resarch international trade in general and trade relations between a country and member countries of a customs union in particular.
Chapter 13 - Fiscal policy, deficits, and debt. This chapter explores the tools of government stabilization policy in terms of the aggregate demand–aggregate supply (AD-AS) model. Next, this chapter examines fiscal policy measures that automatically adjust government expenditures and tax revenues when the economy moves through the business cycle phases.
In this chapter, students will be able to: Describe the role of the Federal Reserve of the United States, define macroeconomic stability as the Fed’s primary goal while noting that controlling inflation has typically been the way it measures its success, integrate an understanding of the tools of monetary policy with their application utilizing an aggregate supply-aggregate demand model, describe the recent history of monetary policy and the Federal Reserve’s role in the 2007-2009 recession.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Explain how gross domestic product (GDP) is defined and measured; describe the relationships among GDP, net domestic product, national income, personal income, and disposable income; discuss the nature and function of a GDP price index, and describe the difference between nominal GDP and real GDP; list and explain some limitations of the GDP measure.
The provision of relevant, accurate and timely performance information
is essential for assuring and improving the performance of health
systems. Citizens, patients, governments, politicians, policy-makers,
managers and clinicians all need such information in order to assess
whether health systems are operating as well as they should and to
identify where there is scope for improvement.
Chapter 13 - Fiscal policy, deficits, and debt. This chapter explores the tools of government stabilization policy in terms of the aggregate demand-aggregate supply (AD-AS) model. Next, this chapter examines fiscal policy measures that automatically adjust government expenditures and tax revenues when the economy moves through the business cycle phases.
The papers in this volume explore the key issues linked to this shift, including: ' Increasing research into the Earth Sciences, climate reconstruction and forecasting in order to decrease the degree of uncertainty about the origin, development and implications of climate change; ' The introduction of more binding and comprehensive regulation of both greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation measures, like that in the United Kingdom; ' Matching climate policy with that for disasters and mainstreaming it into overall development strategies.
The Debt Sustainability Framework sets out a proposal by the World Bank
for identifying countries in actual or potential debt distress situations
leading to a formula for determining grant eligibility within the amounts to
be allocated during the Fourteenth Replenishment of IDA. It attempts to
classify countries based on the performance of their institutions and policies
and determine thresholds for selected debt indicators for each country
grouping and then estimate the level of debt distress as measured by the
forecast levels of the selected indicators from the country DSAs.
The costs of general checkups and other preventive services were not covered for 3 percent of people with
employer-sponsored or private health insurance (Figure 7). This can be considered a measure of
underinsurance in the population.
These data were obtained by asking certain respondents: “Does this health insurance plan pay for all,
most, some, or none of the costs of general checkups and other preventive services?” (The question
about coverage of preventive care was asked only for persons with employer-sponsored and other private
fast pace. As part of the structural adjustment programmes of the late 1980s and early
1990s Bangladesh undertook a number of initiatives towards trade liberalisation and trade
promotion to stimulate exports and encourage investment in export-oriented activities.
The major objective of these reforms was removal of anti-export bias, introduction of
incentives for exports and facilitation of participation in global labour market.
In spite of the limited evidence about the behaviour of mutual funds in emerging
markets, mutual fund investment in these areas has grown markedly over the past decade at a
quicker pace than even the developed markets have shown. The growth in mutual fund
investment is influential because it shapes the future development in the securities market and
has important policy implications. The high proportion of institutional investors creates more
timely information and therefore makes the market more efficient.
Trends in needing help with such activities as housework or shopping may be
due to changes in the physical abilities of the older population, but they may also be
related to the availability of help in the house, either familial or paid, the availability
of appliances, and the accessibility of transportation (1, 12). However, causes of
trends in IADL functioning have not been apportioned to reasons residing in the
person and reasons outside the person.
The trends in what is termed ADL disability have not been nearly as consistent
as those in IADL disability (31).