The study of public policy, including the methods of policy analysis, has been among the most rapidly
developing fi elds in the social sciences over the past several decades. Policy analysis emerged to
both better understand the policymaking process and to suppy policy decision makers with reliable
policy-relevant knowledge about pressing economic and social problems.
Overall, our analysis can be understood as one of the first cross-country empirical
studies on the determinants of bank fees and as a contribution to the literature
testing the contradictory empirical predictions of the SCP and ES hypotheses
regarding the influence of concentration on prices in the banking industry.
In a simple world of full Ricardian Equivalence, households increase their savings by the
present value of future taxes needed to repay government debt. Their desired bond holdings
thus rise by the exact increase in government debt issuance. Private consumption declines
to offset the increase in public expenditure, leaving GDP unchanged. The long-term interest
rate therefore remains constant.
In this stylised view, changes of the government debt/GDP
ratio should not affect the future path of interest rates, nominal or real, in any way at all.
Critical loads, and other approaches that use models or empirical observations to link deposition with effects, provide tools that enable
resource managers and policymakers to evaluate tradeoffs between the costs of more stringent emissions controls and the benefits of
ecosystem services provided by healthy ecosystems.
A critical loads approach can be used to synthesize scientific knowledge about air pollution thresholds that cause adverse impacts
or ecosystem change.
Congestion charging schemes such as those
introduced in Singapore and London, which have lead to a
decrease of 40% and 30%, respectively, in traffic in the
central business districts of both cities , have the
potential to transform urban cities into more sustainable and
liveable environments. In urban cities where people prefer
using private modes of transport (cars) for commuting, as is
the case in Auckland, work is needed to change people’s
perception of public transport and thereby lead to changes in
An important input into policymaking is a clear understanding of how successful military spouses are at finding employment and how veterans fare economically after they exit military service. One common approach for assessing the performance of these groups in the job market is to compare their unemployment rates to those of civilian spouses and nonveterans. Numerous recent media discussions of the employment situation of veterans...
Researchers as well as policymakers have expressed concerns that some contract features in
the credit-card and subprime mortgage markets may induce consumers to borrow too much and
to make suboptimal contract and repayment choices.1 These concerns are motivated in part by
intuition and evidence on savings and credit suggesting that consumers have a time-inconsistent
taste for immediate gratification and often naïvely underestimate the extent of this taste.
It complements other recent RAND publications on improving educational accountability. The results should interest policymakers and educators who are responsible for implementing NCLB, as well as journalists, foundation program officers, and others concerned about accountability in e
Teachers and educational leaders are extraordinarily busy, inundated
with demands for more work and better results with fewer
resources—and less time. You will decide within the next few paragraphs
whether this book is worth your time. Let me come straight
to the point. Accountability for Learning equips teachers and leaders
with the ability to transform educational accountability policies
from destructive and demoralizing accounting drills into meaningful
and constructive decision making in the classroom, school, and
Tax compliance researchers begin with the supposition that people compare the marginal benefit of noncompliance (reduced tax payments, for example) with the expected marginal costs, which account for both the likelihood of punishment and its severity. That perspective provides an approach for evaluating the effective penalties uninsured people could anticipate under an individual health mandate.
A key consideration in deciding whether to establish a policy preference for organizing
cross-border banking groups as branches or subsidiaries is the balance between efficiency
and financial stability. From the perspective of policymakers, different organizational
structures have important stability implications, notwithstanding the “efficiency arguments”
that may favor branches.
A key observation of the paper is that neither the branch nor the subsidiary structure is
obviously preferable in all cases from the financial stability perspective. The key to
ensuring financial stability lies instead in the design of effective mechanisms to oversee and
resolve cross-border banking groups. These include effective home/host supervision and
information-sharing arrangements and satisfactory cross-border resolution regimes and burden-
Are older drivers posing an increasing risk to the public? If they are, what options should policymakers consider to mitigate that risk? This research offers a new perspective on these questions. Using an innovative approach to estimate the extent to which older drivers are on the road and their riskiness compared with drivers of other