The rain forest takes an immense breath and then exhales, once every four or
five years, as a major global weather pattern plays out, usually heralded by
El Nin˜o–Southern Oscillation. While this powerful natural cycle has occurred
for many millennia, it is during the past decade that both the climate of Earth
and the people living on it have had an increasing influence on the weather
pattern itself, with many biological consequences. In Southeast Asia, as also in
most of the Neotropics, El Nin˜o accompanies one of the most exuberant outpourings
of nature’s diversity.
3 Neuroethology of Foraging
Alive with color, a patch of ﬂowers is also alive with the constant motion of bumblebees, honeybees, syrphid ﬂies, and other pollinators. A bumblebee lands heavily on a ﬂower, making other insects take ﬂight. She turns, plunges her head into the corolla, and remains motionless.
13 Pollination, Seed Predation, and Seed Dispersal
INSECTS AFFECT PLANT REPRODUCTION AND ASSOCIATED PROCESSES in a variety of ways. Direct and indirect effects of herbivores on plant production and allocation of resources to reproduction were described in Chapter 12.
This chapter proceeds from an ecological framework, which recognizes that multiple aspects of
an adolescent's life may affect their reproductive health experiences, including a teen's family
environment, their individual attitudes and behaviors, and peer attitudes and behaviors. In
addition, the characteristics of a teen's community, including school context, neighborhood
environment, and broader policies may affect reproductive health behaviors.
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are the main pollinating agents for numerous
plants and fruit trees and, hence, play a key role in agriculture and
more generally in the maintenance of ecological biodiversity. Although
these social insects are not the targets of all the different agrochemical
treatments used in crop protection, they are widely affected by pesticides.