This book is written to serve as a reference handbook for the practicing engineer or
scientist who needs to prepare the basic process engineering and cost estimation
required for the design of an air pollution control system. The user of this book
should have a fundamental understanding of the factors resulting in air pollution
and a general knowledge of the techniques used for air pollution control.
Human activities have a large and important impact on the environment.
Naturally occurring elements or compounds are often concentrated and
redistributed in the environment through industrial processes, power production,
and consumer activity. For example, lead, which is found in
naturally occurring mineral deposits, has become a major pollutant through
its use in batteries, paints, and gasoline additives.
Because of the potential public health implications, the importance of toxic air pollutants in ambient
air has been recognized to some degree for many years. Efforts to “regulate” human activities
resulting in the production of ambient air pollutants probably date back many centuries, even as
the combustion of fossil fuels and air pollution from other organized human activities began having
a noticeable impact on the environment.
The treatment of contaminated land to eliminate or reduce the presence of
pollutants in the contaminated site has received (and will continue to receive)
considerable attention from the practicing profession. Extensive research and development
are still underway in respect to the delivery of more effective (and economic)
means for site decontamination.
Vincent Cogliano reported holding stocks, bonds, stock options or other securi-
ties in a commercial entity with an interest related to air pollution. He also re-
ported having held office or position, paid or unpaid, where he may have been
expected to represent interests or defend a position related to the subject of air
David Eastmond reported having received research support from a commercial
entity or other organization with an interest related to the subject of air pollution.
The aimof this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of the impact of total
population size and other demographic factors on air pollution emissions and
to correct the weaknesses outlined above. We build on the papers by Dietz
and Rosa (1997), Shi (2003) and York et al. (2003a, b) and improve on their
studies in a number of ways. First, whereas these three studies examine only
CO2 and energy use,we extend the analysis to sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions,
a pollutant with very different properties to CO2 and hence potentially pos-
sessing a very different relationship with population.
We use three models to estimate health damages from PM10. First, we use an air
dispersion model to estimate each source’s contribution to annual average ambient levels of
PM10 at several thousand receptor locations in Paso del Norte. Next, we use a health effects
model to estimate the number of cases of human mortality and morbidity that result from this
pollution each year. Finally, we use a valuation model to calculate the dollar values of these
health impacts. This section briefly discusses each of these models.
A more detailed discussion
is available in Blackman et...
Our estimated results are therefore consistent and
free frombias. Fourth,we investigate the impact of amore comprehensive set
of demographic factors on pollution including the age composition, the
urbanization rate and the average household size.Many existing econometric
studies neglect demographic factors other than total population size. Parikh
and Shukla’s (1995) analysis of the effect of the urbanization rate on energy
use and greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries represents a
notable exception in this regard....
The activities of the Department of Defense (DOD) and its contractors in manufacturing, testing,
maintaining, and disposing of military equipment make up a significant portion of the industrial
processes conducted in the United States. As is the case with the commercial industries, some of these
activities, such as metal plating, have resulted in industrial pollution and environmental contamination.
With increasing environmental regulation of such processes in recent decades, defense facilities have
been faced with growing compliance issues.
Common choices for representing the smooth function f in model (1) include natural splines,
penalized splines and smoothing splines. (Other less common choices are LOESS smoothers or
harmonic functions.) The ﬁrst is fully parametric, whereas the last two may be considered more
ﬂexible.With natural splines, we construct a spline basis with knots at ﬁxed locations through-
out the range of the data and the choice of knot locations can have a substantial effect on the
To obtain the basic information on human exposure to mercury (Hg) due to gold mining activities in North of Viet Nam, total mercury was determined for human hair and blood samples collected from population living in gold mining area. The results indicate that the mercury concentrations measured in 98 blood samples with ranging from 1.128 to 22.751 ppb and 65 hair samples with ranging from 0.379 to 2.440 ppm, the good correlation between concentration of mercury in hair and blood samples was found in people and the ratios of hair Hg to blood hair were 195 for males and 142 for females
Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant
, the intent of the author is twofold. The Þrst
intent is to consolidate the information and experience in
waterworks and wastewater treatment plant operations
that have evolved as a result of technological advances in
the Þeld, and as a result of the concepts and policies
promulgated by the environmental laws and the subsequent
This book stems from the author’s experience with a variety of problems on
the fate, distribution, and toxicity of organic compounds in the aquatic environment.
It became increasingly clear that the procedures for investigating
these problems crossed the traditional boundaries of organic and analytical
chemistry, microbiology, and biology, and after many years this resulted in
the idea of selecting the relevant aspects of these and writing the present
On average, one ton of hazardous waste per person is generated annually
by industries in the United States. Before the Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act of 1984, hazardous wastes were improperly disposed of into
the environment without any regulation. As a result, remediation of these
contaminated sites and management of the ongoing hazardous waste sources
are two major tasks to be achieved by treatment technologies.
The occupational and environmental safety and health professions have been on merging paths for several
years now. Corporate "down-sizing" or "right-sizing" has resulted in a more streamlined approach to these
once very diverse and quite separate disciplines. Although they both may now be practiced in tandem,
often by the same individuals, each has evolved and developed as a separate area of study. As such, there
are literally thousands of words, terms, and phrases that have specific meanings within their respective
disciplines that may not always be clear and simple....
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of chemical
compounds which do not exist in nature but which are manmade.
Commercial mixtures are clear, pale yellow liquids
manufactured by the replacement of hydrogen atoms on the
biphenyl molecule by chlorine. The reaction is controlled
according to the percentage replacement of hydrogen and
results in a product which contain chlorobiphenyls with one
or, more usually, several chlorine atoms attached to each
Ecological issues and environmental problems have become exceedingly complex. Today,
it is hubris to suppose that any single discipline can provide all the solutions for protecting
and restoring ecological integrity. We have entered an age where professional humility is
the only operational means for approaching environmental understanding and prediction.
Physical properties of metals, ceramics, and polymers, such as ductility, thermal expansion, heat
capacity, elastic modulus, electrical conductivity, and dielectric and magnetic properties, are a direct
result of the structure and bonding of the atoms and ions in the material. An understanding of the
origin of the differences in these properties is of great engineering importance.
In working with regulated industries over the past eight years, many EPA regulatory reinvention initiatives
have recognized an emerging and very real redefinition of the manufacturing landscape. Largely, this
movement has arisen in the context of today’s increasingly competitive “immediate” global market,
requiring companies to conceive and deliver products faster, at lower cost, and of better quality than their