Pollution prevention measures

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  • Why do some contaminants remain in soils indefinitely? How much of a threat do they pose to human health or the environment? The need for effective and economic site decontamination arises daily. Geoenvironmental Engineering: Contaminated Soils, Pollutant Fate, and Mitigation discusses why soils remain contaminated, focusing on the development of the factors, properties, characteristics, and parameters of soils and individual contaminants.

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  • This Handbook provides a concise overview of the latest technologies for managing industrial air pollution in petrochemical, oil and gas, and allied industries. Detailed material on equipment selection, sizing, and troubleshooting operations is provided along with practical design methodology. Unique to this volume are discussions and information on energy-efficient technologies and approaches to implementing environmental cost accounting measures.

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  • Assessment of source of air, water, and land pollution - Part II : Approaches for consideration in formulating evironmantal control strategies.The environment is a combination of natural factors and social surrounds the outside of a certain system. They affect this system and identify trends and status of its existence. Environment can be seen as a set, in which the system is considered as a subset. Environment of a system is considered to be interactive with that system

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  • Water contamination weakens or destroys natural ecosystems that support human health, food production, and biodiversity. Studies have estimated that the value of ecosystem services is double the gross national product of the global economy, and the role of freshwater ecosystems in purifying water and assimilating wastes has been valued at US$ 400 billion (2008$) (Costanza et al. 1997). Freshwater ecosystems are among the most degraded on the planet, and have suffered proportionately greater species and habitat losses than terrestrial or marine ecosystems (Revenga et al. 2000).

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  • Contaminated bottom sediments and their negative impacts on water quality are a major problem in surface waters throughout the United States as well as in many other parts of the world. Even after elimination of the primary contaminant sources, these bottom sediments will be a main source of contaminants for many years to come. In order to determine environmentally-effective and cost-effective remedial actions, the transport and fate of these sediments and associated contaminants must be understood and quantified.

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  • Private landowners or Federal Agencies responsible for cleaning up radiological environments are faced with the challenge of clearly defining the nature and extent of radiological contamination, implementing remedial alternatives, then statistically verifying that cleanup objectives have been met.

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  • WHO has a long tradition in synthesizing the evidence on health aspects of air quality and in preparing air quality guidelines defining conditions for healthy air. We are grateful to the outstanding scientists conducting this work. We hope that these new guidelines will be useful globally to people assessing indoor air quality with a view to predicting its effects on health, and also to those with responsibil- ity for introducing measures to reduce health risks from indoor exposure to air pollutants.

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  • The burden of disease quantifies mortality and morbidity due to a given disease or risk factor. The most commonly used measure is the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY), which combines the years of life lost due to disability with the years of life lost due to death. This measure allows to compare diseases or risk factors in terms of their public health importance. The World Health Organization has been investigating the contribution of a range of risk factors, such as malnutrition, smoking and lack of access to water and sanitation, to the burden of disease.

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  • The summary for Module 2 Indoor Air Pollution Monitoring was prepared by David Pennise. Presentations were put together by David Pennise, Kyra Naumoff, CEIHD (based on materials created by Kirk Smith, University of California at Berkeley) and Eva Rehfuess. The summary for Module 3 Monitoring Impacts on Health and Well-Being was prepared by Eva Rehfuess. Presentations were put together by Eva Rehfuess and Jonathan Rouse, in collaboration with Nigel Bruce and Kirstie Jagoe. The summary for Module 4 Stove Performance was pre- pared by Mike Hatfield, Aprovecho Research Center.

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  • Preconstruction planning should be used to sequence major grading activities to minimize the exposure time of graded or denuded areas. The erosion prevention and sediment control measures and/or plans shall be modified as necessary so that they are effective at all times throughout the course of the project. The Operator will be responsible for the implementation and execution of all storm water runoff controls.

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  • The development of a strategy involves the selection of a coherent set of measures which, taken together, will reduce the emissions of transport pollutants. These measures can be technology-oriented, targeting the vehicles and fuels used and maintenance practices within the sector, or they can be behavioural, seeking to reduce (or prevent increases in) the amount of activity of the most polluting vehicles.

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  • The southeasterly wind pattern measured at Chalco was the most consistent flow feature measured during the experimental period. These winds developed in the mid-afternoon in a layer up to 1 km deep and continued for several hours. The local upslope flows evident in the early afternoon in the southwestern part of the basin were weaker and shallower than anticipated. These flows have been associated with the prevalence of high ozone concentrations in this area of the valley.

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  • This document is one of several white papers that summarize readily available information on control techniques and measures to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from specific industrial sectors.

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