This Handbook provides a concise overview of the latest technologies for managing industrial air pollution in petrochemical, oil and gas, and allied industries. Detailed material on equipment selection, sizing, and troubleshooting operations is provided along with practical design methodology. Unique to this volume are discussions and information on energy-efficient technologies and approaches to implementing environmental cost accounting measures.
The activities of the Department of Defense (DOD) and its contractors in manufacturing, testing,
maintaining, and disposing of military equipment make up a significant portion of the industrial
processes conducted in the United States. As is the case with the commercial industries, some of these
activities, such as metal plating, have resulted in industrial pollution and environmental contamination.
With increasing environmental regulation of such processes in recent decades, defense facilities have
been faced with growing compliance issues.
Assessment of source of air, water, and land pollution - Part II : Approaches for consideration in formulating evironmantal control strategies.The environment is a combination of natural factors and social surrounds the outside of a certain system. They affect this system and identify trends and status of its existence. Environment can be seen as a set, in which the system is considered as a subset. Environment of a system is considered to be interactive with that system
Why do some contaminants remain in soils indefinitely? How much of a threat do they pose to human health or the environment? The need for effective and economic site decontamination arises daily. Geoenvironmental Engineering: Contaminated Soils, Pollutant Fate, and Mitigation discusses why soils remain contaminated, focusing on the development of the factors, properties, characteristics, and parameters of soils and individual contaminants.
Disagreements involving environmental priorities and strategic approaches, and balancing the
relative roles of compliance assistance with enforcement, contribute to the complexity and
friction that come with enforcing national pollution control laws. Other contributing factors
include the increasing number of statutory and related regulatory pollution control requirements
(some with conflicting mandates) and the adequacy of the resources available for their
Inspite of the best pollution prevention efforts, oil pollution occurs, and when it occurs people suffer different types of damages. Those who suffer the damage need to be compensated. The topics discussed in this chapter are: Introduction; international convention on civil liability for oil pollution damage (CLC), 1969; the protocol of 1992; international convention on the establishment of an international fund for compensation for oil pollution damage (Fund), 1971;...
Water contamination weakens or destroys natural
ecosystems that support human health, food production,
and biodiversity. Studies have estimated that the value of
ecosystem services is double the gross national product of
the global economy, and the role of freshwater ecosystems
in purifying water and assimilating wastes has been
valued at US$ 400 billion (2008$) (Costanza et al. 1997).
Freshwater ecosystems are among the most degraded on
the planet, and have suffered proportionately greater species
and habitat losses than terrestrial or marine ecosystems
(Revenga et al. 2000).
Over the past several years U.S. EPA’s Office of Reinvention has been involved in a number of “regulatory
responsiveness” initiatives. These include the Common Sense Initiative, Project XL, and Pollution
Prevention in Permitting Program (P4). In working with a variety of businesses in the context of these
initiatives, certain project participants noted that corporate manufacturing strategies and initiatives often
produced substantial resource productivity enhancements (that translate directly into improved
WHO has a long tradition in synthesizing the evidence on health aspects of air
quality and in preparing air quality guidelines defining conditions for healthy air.
We are grateful to the outstanding scientists conducting this work. We hope that
these new guidelines will be useful globally to people assessing indoor air quality
with a view to predicting its effects on health, and also to those with responsibil-
ity for introducing measures to reduce health risks from indoor exposure to air
Kanchha’s father immediately found a job in a brick kiln factory not very far from the
city. These kilns produce highly concentrated amounts of fine particulate matter,
which interact with other industrial and vehicle fumes over Kathmandu. Brick
kilns use coal as their main fuel source, and this contributes to the air pollution in
Kathmandu by pumping considerable quantities of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and other
toxic substances into the atmosphere. After a few months, Kanchha’s father started
Problems of indoor air quality are recognized as important risk factors for hu-
man health in both low- and middle- and high-income countries. Indoor air is
also important because people spend a substantial proportion of their time in
buildings. In residences, day-care centres, retirement homes and other special
environments, indoor air pollution affects population groups that are particu-
larly vulnerable owing to their health status or age.
The summary for Module 2 Indoor Air Pollution
Monitoring was prepared by David Pennise. Presentations
were put together by David Pennise, Kyra Naumoff,
CEIHD (based on materials created by Kirk Smith,
University of California at Berkeley) and Eva Rehfuess.
The summary for Module 3 Monitoring Impacts on Health
and Well-Being was prepared by Eva Rehfuess. Presentations
were put together by Eva Rehfuess and Jonathan Rouse, in
collaboration with Nigel Bruce and Kirstie Jagoe.
The summary for Module 4 Stove Performance was pre-
pared by Mike Hatfield, Aprovecho Research Center.
Pollution prevention practices include low impact development techniques, installation of green
roofs and improved chemical handling (e.g. management of motor fuels & oil, fertilizers and
pesticides). Runoff mitigation systems include basin infiltration basins, bio retention systems,
constructed wetlands, retention basins and similar devices.
Thermal pollution from runoff can be controlled by storm water management facilities that
absorb the runoff or direct it into groundwater, such as bio retention systems and infiltration basins.
Effective solutions to water quality challenges exist and have
been implemented in a number of places. It is time for a
global focus on protecting and improving the quality of the
world’s freshwater resources. There are three fundamental
solutions to water quality problems: (1) prevent pollution; (2)
treat polluted water; and (3) restore ecosystems.
In addition to the creation of more wastewater, urban areas
add to poor water quality in a number of ways. The high
concentration of impervious surfaces increases runoff from
roads and can carry numerous pollutants such as oils,
heavy metals, rubber, and other automobile pollution into
waterways and streams. The reduction in water percolation
into the ground can also affect the quantity and quality
of groundwater. Stormwater runoff in urban areas can
overwhelm combined stormwater and wastewater treatment
systems when high volume flows exceed treatment
Preconstruction planning should be used to sequence major grading activities to minimize the
exposure time of graded or denuded areas. The erosion prevention and sediment control measures
and/or plans shall be modified as necessary so that they are effective at all times throughout the
course of the project. The Operator will be responsible for the implementation and execution of all
storm water runoff controls.
Lean Produces a Robust Waste Elimination Culture. During the 1980s and 90s, Public
Environmental Management agencies have looked to promote pollution prevention through such
means as technical assistance, pollution prevention assessment guidance, and pollution prevention
planning requirements. Looking across these initiatives, a common theme emerges: to make
sustained pollution prevention progress that moves beyond the “low hanging fruit,” a company
must create a waste elimination culture.
Before turning to a description of effluent taxes, it is useful to briefly describe the status
quo approach to regulation: command-and-control effluent reduction requirements.
centerpiece of U.S. water quality regulation is the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES) permit program. The NPDES program requires polluters to obtain permits, or
licenses, to discharge. These permits specify pollution amounts that can be legally discharged.
It is important to note that NPDES permits are only required of so-called “point sources.”
Point sources tend to be larger industrial and commercial facilities and public treatment facilities.
Some large agricultural operations are considered point sources, but, by and large, runoff from
farms, roads, lawns, and most small pollution sources are not directly regulated. These
“nonpoint sources” are the subject of increased scrutiny, since most of the nation’s remaining
water quality problems are due to nonpoint pollution.