Xem 1-20 trên 205 kết quả Pollution sources
  • Tham khảo sách 'land-based pollution sources: a global synopsis of land-based pollui on sources science and transboundary management', khoa học tự nhiên, công nghệ môi trường phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • According to the traditional water pollution control approach, user-requirement issues would often be overlooked because the identification of such problems is not based on objectively verifiable indicators. Whereas an impact issue can be identified by the presence of, for example, a pollution source or a human activity causing deterioration of the aquatic resources (e.g. deforestation), user-requirement issues are identified by a lack of water of adequate quality for a specific, intended use. ...

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  • This 1993 document entitled "Assessment of Sources of Air, Water, and Land Pollution: A Guide to Rapid Source Inventory Techniques" provides techniques for conducting source inventories in Chapter 2 and describes models for estimating air emissions under current controls in Chapter 3. Appendix II includes the United Nations (UN) classification of industries and services.

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  • Assessment of source of air, water, and land pollution - Part II : Approaches for consideration in formulating evironmantal control strategies.The environment is a combination of natural factors and social surrounds the outside of a certain system. They affect this system and identify trends and status of its existence. Environment can be seen as a set, in which the system is considered as a subset. Environment of a system is considered to be interactive with that system

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  • Every year in the U.S. factories release over 3 million tons of toxic chemicals into the land, air and water. This hazardous waste causes us to lose over 15 million acres of land every year, it leads to respiratory complications and other health problems and it makes our rivers and lakes too polluted for us to swim in and drink.

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  • This book aims to strengthen the knowledge base dealing with Air Pollution. The book consists of 21 chapters dealing with Air Pollution and its effects in the fields of Health, Environment, Economy and Agricultural Sources. It is divided into four sections. The first one deals with effect of air pollution on health and human body organs. The second section includes the Impact of air pollution on plants and agricultural sources and methods of resistance. The third section includes environmental changes, geographic and climatic conditions due to air pollution....

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  • Despite the tremendous progress that has been achieved in water pollution, almost 40% of the U.S. waters that have been assessed by states do not meet water quality goals. About 20,000 water bodies are impacted by siltation, nutrients, bacteria, oxygen depletion substances, metals, habitat alterations, pesticides, and toxic organic chemicals. With pollution from point sources being dramatically reduced, nonpoint source pollution is the major cause of most water that does not meet water quality goals.

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  • In the United States industry is the greatest source of pollution, accounting for more than half the volume of all water pollution and for the most deadly pollutants. Some 370,000 manufacturing facilities use huge quantities of freshwater to carry away wastes of many kinds. The waste-bearing water, or effluent, is discharged into streams, lakes, or oceans, which in turn disperse the polluting substances. In its National Water Quality Inventory, reported to Congress in 1996, the U.S.

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  • .Open source software in life science research Published by Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2012 .Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomedicine 1 Practical leadership for biopharmaceutical executives J. Y. Chin 2 Outsourcing biopharma R&D to India P. R. Chowdhury 3 Matlab® in bioscience and biotechnology L. Burstein 4 Allergens and respiratory pollutants Edited by M. A. Williams 5 Concepts and techniques in genomics and proteomics N. Saraswathy and P. Ramalingam 6 An introduction to pharmaceutical sciences J.

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  • This study to develop AQ pollutant datasets for each of the constituent countries of the UK has been commissioned by Defra in order to better inform energy and environmental policy-makers within the Devolved Administrations in their pursuit of objectives set by the Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (AQS for ESWNI). These objectives also contribute to the UK’s targets as a whole in terms of meeting both national and international targets on both local and transboundary air pollution....

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  • Starting from the in situ quality of waterbodies themselves and working backwards to address threats to quality sounds like simple common sense. It is, but it is not how one would describe the current regulatory system. The focus of the current system is on specific numeric discharge limits applied to a precisely defined universe of pollution sources. The quality of surface waters themselves is a binding regulatory issue only if quality is adequately monitored and if point sources are found to be the source of the problem. Effluent taxes could play an important role in...

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  • Using the gradient method, element concentrations within the lichen are usually observed to increase as the distance to the suspected source decreases. Gough and Erdman (1977) used linear regression to evaluate the relationship between distance from a coal fired power plant and metal levels in Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa. However, as Puckett (1988) points out, concentrations of many elements will not reach zero at large distances from pollution sources because they have essential nutritional roles or are normal components of the lichen when growing in its natural environment.

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  • Modern urban Air Pollution Stagnant air Continuing emissions "summer" (photochemical) smog: NO, NO2, CxHy, UV-rad: == O3 (reactions worked out on blackboard) Winter (cold weather) smog: fine or ultra-fine particles == health effects Mixture is different in different cities Traffic important source Toxicological mechanism still unknown Health effects even at low concentrations (from 40 mg/m3?)

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  • To tackle polluted source water, water utilities in the region are often forced to install expensive treatment plants that can cost millions to install and operate. USDA economists estimate that removing nitrate alone from drinking water costs more than $4.8 billion a year. The cost of dealing with algal blooms is particularly daunting. The total capital cost of water treatment that would address cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxins, can range between $12 million and $56 million for a town of 100,000 people.

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  • Stable sulfur isotope ratios in combination with multi-element analysis of lichens were used to examine the influence of emissions from two coal-fired power plants in the Yampa Valley on pollutant deposition in the Mt. Zirkel Wilderness of northern Colorado (Jackson et al. 1996). Coal-fired power plants typically emit SO2 with a stable isotope ratio 34 S/ 32 S characteristic of the coal combusted.

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  • Previous World’s Worst Pollution reports have ranked pollution sources by the potential number of people at risk (2010) and created disease burden estimates for location-specific case studies (2011). This year’s report is the first attempt at creating a widespread estimate of disease burden attributable to toxic pollution from industrial sources. Previous estimates from these reports indicated that the at-risk population was in the range of 100 million people.

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  • It is important to note that NPDES permits are only required of so-called “point sources.” Point sources tend to be larger industrial and commercial facilities and public treatment facilities. Some large agricultural operations are considered point sources, but, by and large, runoff from farms, roads, lawns, and most small pollution sources are not directly regulated. These “nonpoint sources” are the subject of increased scrutiny, since most of the nation’s remaining water quality problems are due to nonpoint pollution.

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  • Facilitate access to information on the health effects of indoor and outdoor air pollution and methods for reducing the risk. Conduct health impact assessments to determine the magnitude of the health effects associated with changes in air pollution. This information can be used to identify cost- effective measures to improve public health, identify critical uncertainties and suggest productive areas of research. Facilitate country actions to strengthen air quality management.

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  • We use three models to estimate health damages from PM10. First, we use an air dispersion model to estimate each source’s contribution to annual average ambient levels of PM10 at several thousand receptor locations in Paso del Norte. Next, we use a health effects model to estimate the number of cases of human mortality and morbidity that result from this pollution each year. Finally, we use a valuation model to calculate the dollar values of these health impacts. This section briefly discusses each of these models. A more detailed discussion is available in Blackman et...

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  • Growing awareness around the ecological impacts of water withdrawal and discharge increases both reputational and regulatory risks. Healthy aquatic ecosystems are an essential part of local communities and livelihoods, not only by serving as a source of clean drinking water, but also by providing cultural, social, aesthetic and economic value. As a result, significant water withdrawal or wastewater discharge, regardless of the extent of actual impacts on the neighboring communities or ecosystems, inevitably increase the risk of potential conflict with local communities.

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