Xem 1-19 trên 19 kết quả Pollution status
  • Assessment of source of air, water, and land pollution - Part II : Approaches for consideration in formulating evironmantal control strategies.The environment is a combination of natural factors and social surrounds the outside of a certain system. They affect this system and identify trends and status of its existence. Environment can be seen as a set, in which the system is considered as a subset. Environment of a system is considered to be interactive with that system

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  • The first team, from the Southern Cross Institute for Health Research (Morgan and Jalaludin, 2001), investigated the physical health impacts of air pollution. The team reviewed a large range of international and Australian studies that had applicability to the GMR airshed. From this review, Morgan and Jalaludin (2001) recommended exposure- response estimates for the common air pollutants7 and air toxics.

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  • On a national scale, or regional scale depending on the size of the country, the initial step should be to conduct a water resources assessment. In this context, a water resources assessment is an integrated activity, taking into account water pollution control as well as more general water resources issues. At this very early stage it may be difficult to determine whether a certain problem is purely one of water quality or whether it also relates to the availability of water resources.

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  • China is rapidly developing as evidenced by enhanced urbanization and industrialization and greatly increased energy consumption. However, these have brought Chinese cities a variety of urban air pollution problems in recent decades. During the 1970s, black smoke from stacks became the characteristic of Chinese industrial cities; in the 1980s, many southern cities began to suffer serious acid rain pollution; and recently, the air quality in large cities has deteriorated due to nitrous oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and photochemical smog, which are typical of vehicle pollution.

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  • Problems of indoor air quality are recognized as important risk factors for hu- man health in both low- and middle- and high-income countries. Indoor air is also important because people spend a substantial proportion of their time in buildings. In residences, day-care centres, retirement homes and other special environments, indoor air pollution affects population groups that are particu- larly vulnerable owing to their health status or age.

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  • These health impacts involve about $10 billion in annual economic damages. Loss of life and pain and suffering account for about $4.1 and $4.8 billion of this total. Annual health care costs of air pollution are in the order of $600 million; lost productivity accounts for an additional $560 million in annual damages. These economic damages are expected to increase substantially over the next 20 years. The ASAP will reduce health and economic damages by about 11% overall, compared to the status quo. The residual damages (i.e.

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  • Ennore Creek becomes the pollution point in Bay of Bengal which influences the marine resources and productivity of the region. This coastal belt in the neighboring areas of the city is viewed as dumping sites for industrial effluents and disposing domestic waste (Arunagiri et al., 1998). The natural wealth of the creek is now being eroded to mere sewage channel (Jayaprakash, 2003). The Ennore Thermal Power Plant uses the river waters as coolant and lets out the warm water, in the Ennore Creek.

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  • Leading mining companies have taken up the chal- lenge and are pushing beyond minimum legal requirements through voluntary initiatives, to ensure their continued “license-to-operate” from the com- munity as well as increasing their competitive advantage through continuous, voluntary improve- ments in environmental performance. As with all mining activities, the extraction and bene- ficiation of phosphate rock and potash to produce mineral fertilizer raw material has the potential to cause environmental impacts.

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  • The report describes the environmental status of the water bodies in 2004 as well as the trend in environmental quality over the period 1989–2004 in relation to changes in the pressures. In addition it de- scribes the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and species, in- cluding the first results of this monitoring, which was initiated in 2004.

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  • Before turning to a description of effluent taxes, it is useful to briefly describe the status quo approach to regulation: command-and-control effluent reduction requirements. 2 The centerpiece of U.S. water quality regulation is the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program. The NPDES program requires polluters to obtain permits, or licenses, to discharge. These permits specify pollution amounts that can be legally discharged.

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  • The Baltic Sea is a unique basin, being productive with intensive fishing potential and has therefore been the object of many studies. It is a brackish, nontidal, relatively shallow and semi-enclosed sea. The Baltic is located at a high latitude, hence one of its characteristic features is ice. Another unique geographical pattern are the archipelagos located off the coast of Stockholm which consist of more than 25 000 islands. The relative ionic concentration of toxic substances e.g. chemical elements is generally higher in the low-saline Baltic Sea than compared to the North Sea....

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  • Critical loads, and other approaches that use models or empirical observations to link deposition with effects, provide tools that enable resource managers and policymakers to evaluate tradeoffs between the costs of more stringent emissions controls and the benefits of ecosystem services provided by healthy ecosystems. A critical loads approach can be used to synthesize scientific knowledge about air pollution thresholds that cause adverse impacts or ecosystem change.

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  • Quantitative methods - including performance testing, indoor air pollution monitoring and questionnaires - can track changes in "quantifiables" and are a means of objectively comparing one intervention against another. Qualitative methods, on the other hand, help reveal the perspectives of individuals or communities and provide important contextual data to explain the results of quantitative analyses. They include in-depth, open-ended interviews, direct observations of behaviours and participatory methods. Sample size, i.e.

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  • Most of the concern about mercury focuses on lakes and other aquatic ecosystems, such as rivers, streams, wetlands and oceans. The levels of mercury found in terrestrial environments are usually not high enough to threaten the health of wildlife and humans. But some aquatic environments favour the transformation of mercury into its more poisonous form — methylmercury — and it is the bioac- cumulation of methylmercury in fish and marine mammals that presents a potential problem when they are consumed by humans.

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  • The second domain, environmental pollutants, encompasses exposures that might bring about chronic conditions or exacerbate these conditions. We include in this domain air, water, and other toxic pollutants. For example, repeated exposure to toxic waste sites may result in malignancies later in life (American Cancer Society, 2002), which in turn may lead to functional decline (Teno et al., 2001; Michael et al., 2000). Thus, exposure to water contamination or toxic wastes is likely to affect health status, particularly though cumulated effects in the lifecourse.

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  • Mining wastes can cause significant ecological destruction. Often, solid mine wastes are dumped into streams, destroying habitat and causing siltation and heavy metal and other contamination. Even when such wastes are stored out of water channels, trace materials can leach into surface waters and infiltrate into local groundwater. Fine- grained tailings can wash into local waterways and degrade streams by covering and filling coarser-grained substrates.

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  • The arrows that point from the box labeled “Information distilled, interpreted, excerpted” indicate where this processing occurs. So for instance, scientists and committees process information before handing it on to policy advisors, and policy advisors do the same before handing information on to policy makers. And at the end of the chain, complex scientific information often gets boiled down to just a few pages and messages that reach the desks of the policy makers themselves.

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  • This fact sheet aims to shed light on the right to health in international human rights law as it currently stands, amidst the plethora of initiatives and proposals as to what the right to health may or should be. Consequently, it does not purport to provide an exhaustive list of relevant issues or to identify specific standards in relation to them. The fact sheet starts by explaining what the right to health is and illustrating its implications for specific individuals and groups, and then elaborates upon States' obligations with respect to the right.

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  • This project has been preceded by a series of reports and initiatives, which have recognised a need for further monitoring in the areas of climate change and air pollution impacts on biodiversity. Three major reports on the effects of climate change on biodiversity recommend further monitoring in this area. A review by Hossell et al. (2000) advocated the ‘development of methodologies for monitoring and assessing the status and quality of designated sites and key species affected by climate change’.

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